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Potential of the Tengizchevroil partnership

Summary

The development of the Tengiz and Korolev oilfields has generated a major sulphur supply capability in Kazakstan, as related in this overview* of the project by' Geoff Freter of Tengizchevroil.

Abstract

Tengizchevroil (TCO) was fonned in 1993 as a partnership between Tengizmunaigaz, the Kazak state oil and gas company, and Chevron Overseas Co to exploit the vast oil and associated gas reserves of the Tengiz and Korolev oil fields in the North Caspian Basin. Earlier in 1996, Mobil acquired half of Tengizmunaigaz's holding, making it a 25% partner.

The processing facilities include four Claus sulphur recovery plants with tail gas treatment units. Each has a capacity of 225,000 tly. Three are in operation and the fourth is due for completion at the end of 1996. The site is equipped to store and load both liquid and solid sulphur.

Initially, the operation was export- limited owing to the limited capacity of the oil pipeline into Russia, but TCO has now developed other options, including rail, tanker and barge. Since the company suspended crushed bulk sulphur loading in 1995, sulphur is being mainly exported as a liquid in TCO's own fleet of 275 rail tankcars until the installation of new sulphur forming facilities.

Great importance has been attached to plant and operator safety, environmental responsibility, training standards and community involvement.

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Smelter acid supply surge in Australia

Summary

Several major projects are set to underline the growing significance of sulphuric acid output at metal smelters, reports Martin Horseman.

Abstract

The structure of the sulphuric acid industry in Australia has been transformed in recent years. Under the influence of a huge cutback in sulphuric acid demand for local manufacture of phosphate fertilizers, Australian production of sulphuric acid is half what it was 15 years ago. And the shutdown of the country's sulphuric acid capacity based on the use of elemental sulphur has been further propelled by the build-up of acid capacity at nonferrous metal smelters.

This growing dependence on metallurgical sources of sulphuric acid supply will be reinforced in the remaining years of the decade as several new smelter acid projects come to fruition. In common with experience elsewhere, it has been the impact of environmental improvements that has encouraged the clean-up and recovery of sulphur dioxide in smelter off-gases in the form of sulphuric acid; the new production is being directed into the merchant acid market as a stand-alone product or slotted into downstream operations as the customary intermediate in phosphate fertilizer production.

Indeed, the potential value of the SOz supplies in" the nation's mineral resources has promoted the realisation of smelter acid supply even ahead of the need to take account of possible future environmental controls - the latest announcement in regard to WMC's Queensland Fertilizer Project providing ample confirmation of the trend (see below).

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Using a process simulator to improve sulphur recovery

Summary

Increasingly stringent sulphur emissions regulations often require renovation of older sulphur recovery units (SRUs) to improve overall recovery. Optimization or modification of an existing Claus SRU or the design of a new unit can be simplified by use of a process simulator. In this paper Karl W. Mattsson-Boze and Lili G. Lyddon of Bryan Research &Engineering present examples to show how TSWEET® can be used to model a Claus SRU and then to simulate modifications to aid in evaluating the best design.

Abstract

Exploring plant modifications to improve sulphur recovery in an existing unit can be a very difficult process due to the large number of possible design variations and an even greater number of feed compositions. A process simulator simplifies the task of evaluating Claus sulphur recovery unit operations such that a wide variety of modifications can be investigated. Almost any design option for a new Claus unit can be modelled based on feed composition. The most feasible options which should be considered for the final design can be determined quickly with the aid of a process simulator.

Two examples are presented to illustrate the use of the process simulator. The first example assumes that an existing four bed Claus sulphur recovery unit with lean feed and a sulphur recovery of 96.3% must be modified to achieve at least 99% recovery. Some of the options investigated include replacing the fourth bed with a cold (sub-dewpoint) bed or direct oxidation bed, oxygen enrichment of the combustion air, use of a catalytic burner, and the addition of a SCOT type tail gas cleanup unit. Combinations of these options are also considered.

The second example shows how current plant operations may be optimized by changing operating conditions without adding any new process equipment.

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The Claus revisited - Part 4

Summary

Earlier parts of this four-part series on "The Claus Revisited" have dealt with challenges in preparing the Claus feed(s) and the essential roles in the Claus process of the front end reaction furnace, the waste heat boiler and catalytic converters. In this final part J. B. Hyne and B. Gene Goar deal with the rest of the Claus process: sulphur condensers, reheaters, tail gas coalescers, tail gas cleanup and incineration. The key parts they play and their interdependence are reviewed.

Abstract

Earlier parts of this four-part series on "The Claus Revisited" have dealt with challenges in preparing the Claus feed(s) and the essential roles in the Claus process of the front end reaction furnace, the waste heat boiler and catalytic converters. In this final part J. B. Hyne and B. Gene Goar deal with the rest of the Claus process: sulphur condensers, reheaters, tail gas coalescers, tail gas cleanup and incineration. The key parts they play and their interdependence are reviewed.

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