BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Alloy trough distributors: a cost effective choice

Summary

Good acid distribution in any tower is extremely critical to ensure optimum tower performance and maximum service life of downstream equipment. Nick Bhambri of Monsanto Enviro-Chem presents the advantages of alloy trough distributors which have been designed to proved complete coverage over the entire tower packing surface.

Abstract

Good acid distribution in any tower is extremely critical to ensure optimum tower performance and maximum service life of downstream equipment. Nick Bhambri of Monsanto Enviro-Chem presents the advantages of alloy trough distributors which have been designed to proved complete coverage over the entire tower packing surface.

Good acid distribution in any tower is extremely critical to ensure optimum tower performance and maximum service life of downstream equipment. In this age of heightened environmental awareness and fiscal responsibility, the choice of acid distribution systems must be made very carefully. Current technology available for acid distribution includes cast iron troughs, pipe type and alloy trough distributors.

Add to basket


H2S: A potential source of hydrogen

Summary

Manufacturing hydrogen from hydrogen sulphide has been acherished goal of many researchers at least since the turn of the century. So far, none of the schemes has achieved commercial success. Recent years, however, have seen a significant pick-up of activity in this area, with a number of projects moving out of the laboratory and into the field. Ed Luinstra* reviews the status of four of the leading processes.

Abstract

Large quantities of hydrogen are used to refine petroleum fuels and to manufacture methanol and 'ammonia. Further pressure is being placed on the supply of hydrogen in refineries as permissible sulphur levels in fuels are declining. Besides its uses to refine oil, hydrogen is also used to convert heavy streams such as crude oil residue an'd oil sands bitumen to high quality transportation fuels.

Most of the hydrogen used in refineries is made by reforming naphtha, and additional amounts are made by steam methane reforming (SMR). Methane reform ing is also practised on a large scale for supplying hydrogen to !the methanol and ammonia industries. In a small number of locations where electricity is cheap, hydrogen is made by the electrolysis of water.

Add to basket


E·mphasis on selectivity

Summary

With the trend towards the processing of more sour crude and natural gas coupled with tighter restrictions on sulphur emissions, the growth in the use of selective amines in gas sweetening is set to continue. Lisa Connock reviews some of the current trends in the use of amine solvents for gas sweetening and Claus tail gas treating.

Abstract

T he most widely used method of treating gas streams to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and/or carbon dioxide (C02) is to treat them with aqueous alkanolamine solvents (amines) in an absorption/ regeneration treating system (see Figure 1).

Amine solvents can be used over a wide range of process conditions, ranging from essentially atmospheric pressure for refinery off-gas and Claus tail gas treating, to high pressure for natural gas sweetening.

The type of amine used for a particular application depends on the following factors:

  • treated gas specifications;
  • type and concentration of impurities in the acid gas;
  • temperature and pressure of the feed gas stream and deliverable treated gas;
  • volume of gas to be treated;
  • hydrocarbon composition of the feed gas stream;
  • required selectivity of acid gas removal;
  • capital and operating costs.

A review of the most common alkanolamines for gas sweetening was provided in Sulphur No. 218. 1 In this article we focus on recent trends in solvent selection for amine sweetening units and Claus tail gas treating.

Add to basket