BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Subsidy is still the big issue

Summary

India has steadily become a larger importer of urea over the past decade, as new plant construction has stalled, tied up in arguments about feedstock costs and government ­subsidies.

Abstract

India and China are, collectively, responsible for nearly 40% of the world’s population and 45% of nitrogen consumption, but in recent years the world’s focus has been very much on China and its undoubtedly impressive rate of industrialisation. However, India’s economy is also growing at an exceptional rate, and the country is very much becoming a major force in the world economy. In 2006 India’s GDP grew by 9.7%, in 2007 by 9.2%, and this year it is projected to grow by a slightly smaller 7.9%, with a similar level in 2009. India became the world’s fifth largest consumer of oil in 2006.

Along with a growing economy India also has a rapidly growing population – growing faster, in fact, than China’s. India’s population stands at 1.15 billion, and is projected to reach 1.33 billion by 2020. Along with the trend to growing population is growing urbanisation. India’s urban population is currently 28%, and by 2020 this is forecast to be 40%. Supplying enough food to satisfy a growing and wealthier population is a challenge for India’s agriculture.

Agriculture is still a major part of the Indian economy. While it is not important to the extent that it once was in financial terms, representing 18% of GDP, it still employs or supports 70% of India’s largely rural population. Food grain production over the previous agricultural year was 227 million tonnes.

But while India has almost one fifth of global population, it has only 10% of the world’s arable land, and the country’s food grain requirement will be an estimated 244 million t/a by 2011-12. There is therefore a continuing requirement to increase agricultural productivity, in which use of fertilizer plays a key part. In fact the Fertilizer Association of India estimates that if India’s fertilization levels were to reach the world average, rice production would in­crease by around 26% and wheat production 11%.

Add to basket


Tackling global warming

Summary

Acceptance of the Kyoto Agreement through­out the world has put pressure on nitric acid producers to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Over the past decade, catalyst ­manufacturers have been developing new and improved technologies for N2O abate­ment to improve the N2O destruction qualities of their primary, secondary and tertiary catalysts. Lisa Connock reports on the latest trends.

Abstract

Pollution is an issue all over the world and N2O emissions from chemical plants have become increasingly under review by environmental authorities over the last decade.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an unwanted, invisible by-product of the manufacture of nitric acid by the Ostwald process. It forms during the catalytic oxidation of ammonia over platinum-rhodium gauzes in the ammonia burner, the major product being nitric oxide (NO).

Add to basket


The behaviour of Safurex®

Summary

Safurex® has become a well established material in the urea world and has contributed to the improved design, maintenance and operation of urea plants in many countries. J. Eijkenboom of Stamicarbon and J. Wijk of Sandvik Materials Technology report on the latest experiences.

Abstract

Due to the use of Safurex® as alloy protection, the investment of new urea plants has become significantly lower, limitations with respect to operational aspects have been widened and although the on-stream times of Stamicarbon urea plants were already significant, with Safurex® even greater on-stream times have become a reality. Consequently, the efficiency and profitability of a urea plant can be maximised and urea plant maintenance becomes a problem of the past.

The development of Safurex® started in 1992. In 1996, Stamicarbon introduced Safurex® to the industry but the developments have been ongoing ever since. As a result of experiences gained to date, some adjustments have been made to the material, the design basis and the construction of urea equipment.

Add to basket


The market for UAN

Summary

Although restrictions on storage, handling and production of solid ammonium nitrate are becoming progressively more onerous globally, it is as a substitute for other liquid fertilizers such as direct application ammonia, especially in the United States, that urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) is beginning to carve itself a niche.

Abstract

Urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) is growing in popularity worldwide, although at the moment it has a major market presence mainly in the US, where it is close to direct application liquid ammonia (another mainly US phenomenon) in popularity, and also to a lesser extent in Europe and the former Soviet states. And as restrictions are increased both on liquid ammonia solutions and solid ammonium nitrate-based fertilizers, so UAN’s market share seems set to increase.

Add to basket