BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Cargotec's mile­stone Gresik order

Summary

Cargotec has announced the latest order for its Siwertell ship unloader range, its 300th to date. This order is destined for an established customer, PT Petrokimia Gresik of Indonesia.

Abstract

The bulk materials handling specialist producer Cargotec has announced its 300th order for its Siwertell ship unloader – a repeat order from the Indonesian fertilizer producer, PT Petrokimia Gresik. Cargotec supplied Petrokemia Gresik with an ST640-DOB ship unloader in 1996. The latest contract, signed in January 2012, will see Cargotec deliver the latest version of the same type in early 2013. The ship unloader will be erected at the customer’s operating site in Gresik, Indonesia and will be designed to discharge phosphate rock, sulphur, urea and ammonium sulphate at a rated capacity of 1,000 t/d. Petrokemia plans to have the unloading facility running by mid-2013.
Anders Paulsson, Cargotec Sales Manager, Bulk Handling said: “The customer chose our Siwertell technology again, because they wanted a highly-efficient continuous screw-type unloader, which was also capable of safely handling potentially explosive materials, such as sulphur. We have by far the most knowledge and experience of screw-type unloaders, and can offer them at competitive prices.”

Add to basket


Focus on Latin America

Summary

Abstract

Agriculture remains a key contributor to Latin American GDP, averaging around 7% in the region overall, ranging from 5% in Mexico, 8% in Brazil, 15% in Colombia to 24% in Nicaragua. The most important crops grown in Latin America are wheat, sugarcane, maize, soybean, potatoes and cassava. Climatic conditions are generally favourable, but soils are often acidic and infertile. One consequence of these soil conditions is a widespread deficiency in micronutrients. Zinc deficiency is the most widely reported, but Cu, B, Mn and Fe deficiencies are also widely found.

Add to basket


IFDC opens a new frontier for farmers

Summary

Thanks to a new programme sponsored by IFDC, more than 1.5 million farmers in East Africa and thousands of agro-dealers have gained access to fertilizers and other inputs. Yields have already risen. David Hayes reports on a major success story.

Abstract

Smallholder farms in eastern and southern Africa can now receive price information for a wide range of agro-inputs through a newly-launched mobile phone SMS messaging service that is aimed at providing smallholders with better access to farming inputs’ pricing data.
The initiative has been set up by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), which has recently introduced its Regional Agricultural Input Market Information and Transparency System (AMITSA) service in eight countries in eastern and southern Africa, providing farmers with current price information for fertilizers, seeds and pesticides. The countries covered are Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

Add to basket


Gypsum stacks: the equipment check-list

Summary

The disposal and storage of by-product phosphogypsum requires investment in state-of-the-art equipment, including pumps, heavy-duty conveyors and graders.

Abstract

As is well known, each tonne of phosphoric acid produced as P2O5 using the wet process typically generates between 4.5-5.5 tonnes of phosphogypsum, depending on the quality of the phosphate rock. (Phosphogypsum Transport & Disposal, Dr. Anwar E.Z. Wissa and Dr. Nadim Fuleihan, Ardaman & Associates. Paper presented at AIChE Clearwater Meeting [June 2011].) It is estimated that more than 22 million t/a P2O5 of phosphoric acid is produced annually worldwide, generating more than 110 million t/a of gypsum by-product. Very little of this product is used commercially, requiring the vast majority of the tonnage to be disposed on land in gypsum stacks or discharged into water bodies.
Worldwide, the phosphate industry uses four methods to dispose of surplus phosphogypsum, namely:
l Discharging to water bodies
l Backfilling in mine pits
l Dry stacking
l Wet stacking.

Add to basket


Coal and other feedstocks for ammonia plants

Summary

A look at non-gas projects and the available technologies.

Abstract

Coal gasification is the process of producing coal gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour from coal. This was a source of energy for heat and municipal lighting before the advent of industrial-scale production of natural gas, while the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes, including the manufacture of ammonia. This technology forms the backbone of the Chinese ammonia industry, in which coal gasification technology underpins around two-thirds of the country’s total ammonia output. The Republic of South Africa has likewise developed significant ammonia capacity using coal gasification technology.
Elsewhere, natural gas formed the basis of ammonia production, offering many advantages in terms of thermal efficiency and improved economies of scale, especially while natural gas remained very cheaply priced compared with other sources of energy. Interest however has continued in coal gasification technology, gaining a further boost when oil and natural gas prices began to skyrocket from the mid-2000s.

Add to basket


Enhancing soil sulphur status

Summary

The continued depletion of reserves of sulphur in soils throughout the world threatens to limit further advances in agricultural productivity. We examine some of the agronomic programmes that seek to reverse this trend and the enhanced sulphur-containing fertilizers that will help achieve this goal.

Abstract

Like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, sulphur is one of the essential plant nutrients. It contributes to an increase in crop yields in three primary ways:
l Sulphur provides a direct nutritive value.
l It provides indirect nutritive value as a soil amendment, especially for calcareous and saline alkali soils.
l It improves the use efficiency of other essential plant nutrients, particularly N and P.

In general S has similar functions in plant growth and nutrition as N. Generally, plants require about one-tenth as much S as N, but sulphur deficiencies can restrict plant growth just as severely as N deficiencies. Sulphur is not mobile in the plant, so a continuous supply of S is needed from emergence to crop maturity. (Sulphur Fertilization in Crop Production, Department of Agriculture, Government of Saskatchewan.) A deficiency of sulphur at any stage of growth can result in reduced yields.  

Add to basket


JESA – a dynamic partnership

Summary

We profile the joint venture between Jacobs Engineering and OCP for the provision of facility planning, engineering, programme management and construction management services as the ambitious Jorf Lasfar Phosphate Hub project advances toward fulfilment.

Abstract

Playing a key role as OCP’s partner in bringing the Jorf Lasfar Phosphate Hub (JLPH) to fruition is Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. The two groups formalised their relationship in March 2010, when they announced the formation of a joint-venture company, Jacobs Engineering SA (JESA). The new company is equally owned by the two partners and is providing OCP with the tools to support its development strategy. In particular, JESA is helping to fulfil the necessary infrastructure components in the construction of the $7 billion JLPH project, implementing Jacobs’ engineering systems and tools with personnel from both OCP and Jacobs Engineering.
“JESA represents a powerful combination of engineering, project management and construction management resources deployed to support OCP in implementing its strategic expansion plans,” said Noel Watson, chairman of Jacobs Engineering. “Jacobs will strengthen its historical relationship with OCP through this joint venture. By associating with the leader of the phosphate industry and combining our energies and joint expertise, we build a stronger partnership for our mutual benefit in a promising sector.”

Add to basket


Approval for Ma'aden's Al Khabra project

Summary

Two years after revealing that it would evaluate the development of a second phosphate rock mining project, Ma'aden (Saudi Arabian Mining Company) has completed a feasibility study that shows the project to be viable and has received official approval to proceed.

Abstract

Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Ma’aden) announced on 20 February that it has received official approval to proceed with a second major phosphate project in the Kingdom. This approval came two years after Ma’aden had revealed that it was studying this project, which will involve the exploitation of a second phosphate resource in the north of Saudi Arabia. This resource is located at the Al Khabra deposit in the Umm Wual licence area, located 40 km north east of Turaif and immediately to the west of the Al Jalamid deposit.
A week earlier, Ma’aden announced that it had completed a preliminary feasibility study, which showed that the Al Khabra project is viable.

Add to basket


New Brunswick – mining the riches

Summary

In addition to Saskatchewan, the Maritime province of New Brunswick is Canada's other centre of potash excellence. We examine progress in expanding the province's potash capability, embracing both the expansion of existing mines and processing facilities, and the promotion of greenfield projects.

Abstract

Canada enjoys some of the most extensive and richest potash deposits in the world, with a total resource base estimated at around 75 billion tonnes of KCl. In Saskatchewan, where most of Canada’s current potash production is concentrated, the potash resource accessible by conventional underground techniques to a depth of 1,100 m is estimated at 23 billion tonnes KCl. (The Canadian Encyclopedia). An additional 50 billion t/a are estimated to be accessible by solution mining. The potash ore grades range between 21% and 27% K2O.
The Western Canadian potash deposits in the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporate formation extend into Manitoba province, where the proven reserves are estimated to be a minimum of 40 million tonnes at depths of between 800-900 m, and with ore grades ranging between 23% and 25% K2O.

Add to basket


OCP's Jorf Lasfar hub takes shape

Summary

Preparation of the new Jorf Lasfar Phosphate Hub (JLPH) phosphoric acid and downstream fertilizer plants is under way, giving foreign investment partners the opportunity to plug into low-cost raw materials and the best production technology.

Abstract

As the national Moroccan phosphates company, Office Chérifien des Phosphates (OCP) is already the world’s largest exporter of phosphates and its derivatives. Drawing on phosphate rock mined at four sites – Benguérir, Khourigba and Youssoufia in central Morocco, and Boucraa in the south of the country – OCP currently produces around 30 million t/a of phosphate rock. The company can draw on by far the world’s largest reserves of phosphate, estimated at 5.7 billion tonnes, extending to a total resource of between 170-340 billion tonnes.
As the largest enterprise in Morocco, OCP is a primary driver of the country’s economy. In 2010, phosphates and their derivatives are estimated to have represented approximately one quarter of Morocco’s exports and about 3.5% of its GDP, and were worth some $4.5 billion. OCP directly employs over 18,000 employees.

Add to basket


Maximising the P resource

Summary

The biennial CRU Events' Phosphates 2012 International Conference & Exhibition will be held at the Hotel Mazagan, El-Jadida, Morocco on 19-21 March 2012. This is a unique event which brings together all with an interest in the fertilizer, industrial and feed phosphate markets around the world.

Abstract

Under the theme of Maximising the P Resource, CRU Events will convene the 5th International Phosphates Conference and Exhibition in El-Jadida, Morocco – close to heart of operations of the world’s leading phosphate rock and downstream fertilizer producer, OCP. It is at this biennial event that players and stakeholders in the sector can get a macro view of the entire phosphate scenario, ranging from production, marketing, production technology, as well assessing the different user sectors – fertilizers, industrial and feed.
In his capacity as co-sponsor of Phosphates 2012, OCP’s President and CEO Mostafa Terrab welcomes participants, noting that the event brings together executives from across the supply chain of the phosphates industry. “The programme of the conference and exhibition is designed to provide delegates with a unique opportunity to review and discuss industry-wide current and emerging questions,” he said. “The event will also constitute an excellent venue for industry actors to network and showcase their products and services. We look forward to welcoming you to El-Jadida.”

Add to basket