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Sour gas developments in China

Summary

China is set to hugely increase its domestic sulphur production via the exploitation of sour gas reserves in Sichuan province. Sulphur looks at new sulphur capacity from sour gas processing in China, and how quickly this will lead to large new volumes of sulphur.

Abstract

China’s insatiable hunger for energy continues to drive diversification into every avenue of possible domestic production. Although China’s conventional gas reserves are relatively limited, there are considerable reserves of unconventional gas, including tight gas and coalbed methane, and there is now rapid development of shale gas resources. Chevron has signed a joint study agreement to search for shale gas in the Qiannan basin, and in April 2011 the first horizontal well was drilled in the Weiyan shale gas formation in Sichuan. However, shale gas development in China is complicated by both water availability and the fact that Chinese shale gas tends to be sourer than US shale gas and so probably also needs post treatment.

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East Asian sulphuric acid exports

Summary

Northeast Asia has a high concentration of smelter capacity, leading to it being a major exporter of sulphuric acid. China has historically been a net importer of acid, but over the coming years new smelter production may push it into surplus.

Abstract

The major centres of sulphuric acid exports are Europe and northeast Asia. Korea and Japan in particular are the two largest individual exporters of sulphuric acid in the world, mainly from involuntary production in copper and other base metal smelting operations. But China’s rapid industrialisation has also seen it increase its smelter acid production, virtually doubling it in the past five years, and with projections of an increase of more than 50% over the next. The effect of this will be to turn China from a net importer to exporter of acid, and possibly to unbalance a regional market already in major surplus.

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ASRL REVIEW

Summary

Predicting the lifetime and activity of Claus catalysts for CS2 and Claus conversion

Abstract

Let us start by commenting that the title is a very optimistic one, as catalyst lifetimes and their activities are dependent on how well we treat them. In an ideal world, the catalyst experiences only clean process gas, and although that condition might exist in plants for many years, a sudden upset condition can expose the catalyst to materials which quickly deactivate them. In some cases, activity can be recovered by some regeneration procedure, in others it cannot. The objective of this article is to examine how Claus alumina catalysts are deactivated by common poisons found in Claus systems and what, if anything can be done to remediate the catalyst. This analysis relies upon a body of academic studies which have been carried out in our laboratories over the last decade.

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Ultra high sulphur recovery

Summary

Various process configurations and combinations of technologies for sulphur recovery can be applied to meet today's ever more stringent requirements for higher sulphur recovery efficiencies and lower sulphur emissions. In this article, Black & Veatch, Jacobs and Haldor Topsøe discuss how this can be achieved by combining well established technologies for new configurations and tailoring designs to plant specific circumstances.

Abstract

In the November-December 2011 issue of Sulphur we reported on a number of technologies targeting zero sulphur emissions including: the latest advances to HCR technology from Siirtec Nigi1, Fluor’s STREP process2 and Tecnimont KT’s RAR technology3. In this issue we report on how technologies from Jacobs, Haldor Topsøe and Black & Veatch can be applied to reach ultra high sulphur recovery efficiencies.

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New burner improves combustion in SRUs

Summary

Fives-Pillard's new SULFLAM burner for reaction furnaces in sulphur recovery units has been successfully implemented in refineries and gas plants. Recently patented, the new burner design features a specially designed acid gas tip for two stage mixing and is equipped with staged co-firing technology, designed to improve Claus conversion efficiency and allow superior flame stability and optimal BTX destruction, even when firing very lean acid gas and SWS stream gas. L. Ricci of Fives Pillard reports on the latest developments.

Abstract

Established in 1920, Fives-Pillard is part of the Fives Group and is a leading supplier of combustion equipment and control systems worldwide. Fives-Pillard burners for boilers, heaters, incinerators, reaction furnaces and rotary kilns for mineral processing are in operation around the world.
Fives Pillard has over 50 years of experience in sulphur recovery unit applications, supplying high reliability burners for Claus reaction furnaces, in-line heaters, reducing gas generators and tail gas incinerators under the ‘Pillard’ and ‘Foyers-Turbine’ trademarks.

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NOx removal in sulphuric acid manufacture

Summary

A novel and effective method for NOx removal from sulphuric acid manufacture is presented by N. J. Suchak and F. R. Fitch of Linde Gases Division. NOx removal using LoTOxTM technology is simple, elegant and requires almost no new processing equipment. LoTOx can be configured to remove NOx from the process gas stream at the tail end to meet stack emissions or integrated within the sulphuric acid process itself to address both product quality and stack emissions. It has been commercially implemented on two sulphuric acid production lines to attain NOx emissions far below the 10 ppmv level stipulated by the regulatory authority.

Abstract

NOx removal in the production of sulphuric acid is important to limit NOx emissions to the environment (also addresses opacity in the stack) and to improve the quality of the acid product. Issues with NOx formation in sulphuric acid manufacture especially in metal furnaces and spent acid regeneration (SAR) processes are severe due to the practice of oxygen enrichment and even oxy-fuel combustion for process intensification (increasing throughput and efficiency).

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Controlling acid gas mists

Summary

Controlling acid gas mists in the production of sulphuric acid is essential to meet emissions regulations and high product quality. In this article Beltran reports on its high performance wet electrostatic precipitator for gas cleaning in metallurgical plants and Begg Cousland and Kimre discuss the wide range of mist elimination options they offer for sulphuric acid plants. Typical installation methods and general troubleshooting topics are also discussed.

Abstract

Gas cleaning
New and strict pollution regulations in metallurgical plants worldwide are restricting particulate and acid gas emissions to extremely low levels. Because of that, sulphuric acid plants are being installed to remove and utilise SO2 in gases resulting from the roasting of sulphide ores, smelting of ores, and burning or regeneration of spent acid or acid sludge from petroleum refining. To prevent the formation of “black” or contaminated acid and to protect the catalyst beds from fouling and plugging, wet electrostatic precipitators are utilised to clean the off-gases before entry into the acid plant. The acid plants that must handle impure sulphur dioxide gases such as those emitted from metallurgical processes like ore roasters, flash smelters, and spent acid regeneration, require the removal of acid mist and residual dust and fume before the gases enter the drying tower.
Conventional scrubbing systems (wet or dry) are generally not effective in controlling submicron emissions, consisting primarily of acid gas mists, submicron particulates and condensed organics. Wet electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), because of their ability to generate multi-staged charging and strong electrical fields in a wet, cooled atmosphere, have proven effective in cleaning the flue gas.

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