BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

MESPON 2015

Summary

The 2nd Annual Middle East Sulphur Plant Operations Network Forum, MESPON 2015, organised by UniverSUL Consulting, took place in Abu Dhabi at the Sofitel Abu Dhabi Corniche from October 18-20, 2015.

Abstract

Keywords: UniverSUL Consulting, Middle East, sulphur recovery, gas treating, sulphur handling, project execution

Add to basket


Soot formation on Claus catalyst

Summary

It is common for SRU operators to soot up the first catalytic bed during start-up, shutdown or low turndown operation. In this article we discuss the causes and effects of soot fouling in SRUs, how it can be prevented and how it can be treated if it does happen.

Abstract

Soot formation is a problem which affects sulphur recovery units (SRUs) inside refineries and natural gas processing plants around the world. It is a direct result of operations. Soot accumulation may happen slowly over time or in a single flash of chemical imbalance. Gas plant sulphur recovery units can be particularly at risk for soot formation; co-firing or direct-fired reheaters may be necessary in order to reach sufficient process temperatures in the Claus converters due to the lean acid gas feed. These modes of operation introduce additional hydrocarbon into the SRU, which often results in soot formation. Anywhere that hydrocarbon combustion occurs, the possibility of soot formation exists. Keywords: soot, hydrocarbons, fuel quality, process control, flame temperature, catalyst, start-up, shutdown, turndown, heat soak, sulphur stripping, sulphur wash

Add to basket


How to avoid problems with BTX

Summary

Incomplete destruction of BTX in the Claus reaction furnace can lead to degradation of the Claus catalyst and reduced sulphur recovery. In this article we describe how BTX reaches the sulphur plant, how to minimise the amount of BTX in the acid gas feed to the SRU, and how best to deal with benzene toluene and xylene when present in the sulphur plant.

Abstract

Hydrocarbons contained in the feed stream to a sulphur recovery unit (SRU) are not uncommon. Typically, they are destroyed in the Claus reaction furnace and pose no contamination issue to the Claus catalyst. By contrast, the recovery of sulphur from very lean acid gases (<50% H2S) containing significant amounts of aromatic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) is very challenging. Keywords: benzene, toluene, xylene, lean acid gas, BTX destruction, carsul, catalyst, co-firing, oxygen enrichment, acid gas enrichment, Saudi Aramco, Qatargas, Hellenic Petroleum

Add to basket


Lithium sulphur batteries

Summary

There is great excitement in the power industry about the potential for lithium sulphur batteries to take up where lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium batteries left off. What might it mean for sulphur?

Abstract

The world is hungry for energy. In particular, it is hungry for mobile energy, in the form of rechargeable batteries, for smartphones, tablets and laptop computers, and increasingly also for battery-powered vehicles. More advanced mobile devices, with wi-fi connections streaming large file such as movies, place greater demand upon batteries, resulting in shorter battery lifetimes between charges. Electric vehicle performance is similarly limited in terms of vehicle range by their batteries’ capacity, and providing power via conventional lead-acid cells imposes a significant weight penalty. Keywords: TESLA, OXIS, ION, GRAPHENE, DENDRITE, CATHODE

Add to basket


Sulphur storage

Summary

As the sulphur industry faces more years of excess, the short, medium and even long-term storage of sulphur is returning to the fore as an issue.

Abstract

The sulphur blocks at Fort MacMurray have become in many ways emblematic of the sulphur industry. Over 9 million tonnes of sulphur from oil sands processing is currently stored there in block form; it has been calculated that the largest block (technically two blocks with a joining section) is bigger in volume terms – at 2.8 million m3 – than the Great Pyramid of Giza (2.58 million m3). The blocks are symptomatic of the difficulty in moving sulphur from remote areas to market when cheaper sources can be found more readily elsewhere, and as the sulphur market moves back into surplus, it seems inevitable that the industry will see stock building and more blocking of sulphur. Keywords: TENGIZCHEVROIL, TCO, SYNCRUDE, CANADA, KAZAKHSTAN, ASRL, OILSAND, SOUR GAS

Add to basket


Acid leaching for metal extraction

Summary

The slowdown in the Chinese economy has had a negative impact on metals markets, a major source of sulphuric acid demand for metal leaching.

Abstract

Around 10% of all sulphuric acid demand is for the extraction of metals – mainly base metals – from their ores. This makes it the second largest demand segment after phosphate processing, and one which has expanded more rapidly than most other segments of acid demand over the past decade. Copper has generally been the mainstay of metallurgical acid demand, but greatly increased use of acid for leaching of nickel and uranium has helped expand this sector to its current prominence. Keywords: COPPER, NICKEL, URANIUM, KAZAKHSTAN, ZINC, CHILE, LATERITE, SXEW, ELECTROWINNING

Add to basket


Managing the risk of H2S

Summary

Craig Jorgenson, Director of Transportation and Regulatory Affairs for The Sulphur Institute (TSI), describes the effects of hydrogen sulphide and TSI's work with attempting to help mitigate its risks.

Abstract

Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, is known as an environmental contaminant. Occurring naturally in the decay of organic matter and in crude oil and natural gas, it is one of the most commonly removed by-products in the energy industry, not only found at petroleum refineries and natural gas plants, but also livestock farms, landfills, paper mills, sewage lines and treatment plants, underground utility systems, and even food processing plants. Keywords: ANSI, MONITOR, AIR QUALITY, ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, SAFETY, PPE, PROTECTION

Add to basket