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Sulphur 2016, London

Summary

CRU's Sulphur 2016 International Conference and Exhibition takes place in London at the Hilton London Metropole Hotel from 7 to 10 November. Participants at this event can expect informative presentations providing project updates, supply and demand forecasts, latest technological advances and best practice operational experiences.

Abstract

Now in its 32nd year, the Sulphur Conference and Exhibition continues to be the leading annual event for the sulphur and sulphuric acid industry, regularly attracting more than 500 participants from around the globe. The comprehensive conference programme together with the extensive exhibition provide the ideal opportunity to meet industry experts and colleagues and to find out about the latest market trends and technological advances. Keywords: sulphur conference, exhibition, workshop, commercial programme, technical programme

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SRE targets continue to rise

Summary

Around the world sulphur recovery efficiency (SRE) targets have been increasing. Over the following pages we report on the technologies being used in sulphur projects around the globe to reduce SO2 emissions and meet more stringent environmental regulations.

Abstract

prosernat SRU design challenges in Russia In 2013 Prosernat was awarded the contract for the complete delivery of a sulphur recovery unit for Russia. The customer at that time intended to invest in the revamp of a unit for desulphurisation in connection with an increase in capacity. Within the framework of this project, Prosernat has designed and supplied the sulphur recovery unit as a complete modular unit. The SRU configuration is a Claus unit with one thermal stage and three catalytic stages including a special burner used in co-firing mode. Emission standards requirements The unit is designed for 10.5 t/d of recovered elemental liquid sulphur. The guaranteed sulphur recovery shall be no less than 96% of the sulphur processed in the amine acid gas feed. Keywords: sulphur recovery unit, revamp, co-firing, burner, acid feed gas quality, CANSOLV, EUROCLAUS, RAR process, SO2 emissions, sulphur degassing, pit vent, tail gas treatment, MDEA, Russia, China, Asia, USA, Middle East Latin America.

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Monitoring sulphuric acid concentration

Summary

Abstract

Advanced ultrasonic sensing technology provider SensoTech has been focused on the development of in-line analysis systems for process liquids for more than 25 years. In sulphuric acid applications, the monitoring of sulphuric acid and oleum concentration (wt-%) on-line and in real time enhances the safety and efficiency of the plants. Manual sampling is time-consuming and may involve safety hazards. Laboratory analyses can only provide delayed data, making timely intervention in the process impossible. By contrast, methods using in-line measurements allow sulphuric acid concentration to be monitored directly in the process and in real time, enabling continuous measurements and providing on-line data. Keywords: sonic velocity, analyser, on-line monitoring, sulphuric acid concentration, LiquiSonic sensor, real time data.

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Sulphuric acid catalysts guidelines

Summary

Guidelines and rules of thumb can be important tools for making first assessments of anything from catalyst choices to what operational parameter settings to choose. General guidelines can also be very useful for optimising daily operation and finding potential issues in the plant. In this article M Granroth of Haldor Topsoe discusses different guidelines involving the catalyst or converter in sulphuric acid plants.

Abstract

General recommendations can be very useful for making first assessments on everything from catalyst replacement needs to what gas conditions to operate with and design for. Guidelines will also allow for fast evaluation of plant performance and for the operator to optimise operation of the catalyst without the need for advanced software, equipment or specialty knowledge. Designing the catalyst loading Catalyst types and volumes Although it is often advisable to simulate the specific case before deciding which, and how big, a catalyst loading should be loaded in order to reach the requirement of the acid plant, using a rule of thumb can be useful to have a general idea of how much catalyst will be needed and if caesium or other special catalyst is recommended. Fig. 1 shows roughly what emission levels can be achieved with different catalyst loadings for a sulphur burning 3+1 double absorption plant. Keywords: sulphuric acid, catalyst loading, catalyst size, catalyst shape, pressure drop, O2/SO2 ratio, bed inlet temperature, gas distribution.

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Managing emissions in transient conditions

Summary

During start-up, shutdown, feed change, and process upsets, unfavourable operating conditions of the sulphuric acid plant typically lead to increased emissions. These emissions are attracting more attention from regulatory authorities and proactive plant owners, and some plants have regulatory emission limit requirements during the start-up period. The general challenge for plant operators is to shut down and start up as fast as possible with a minimum fuel consumption and with minimum SO2 and acid mist emissions.

Abstract

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) discharged from the stack is one of the main airborne emissions from a sulphuric acid plant. Since the 1970s SO2 emissions from sulphuric acid plants have been steadily decreasing due to advancements in plant and catalyst technology. Although most of the advancements have focused on emissions during steady state operation, the reduction of transient emissions during situations such as cold start-up, plant upsets, changing smelter operation, or various emergency scenarios etc., is increasingly becoming the focal point of reducing overall SO2 emissions during the entire operating campaign of any acid plant. Keywords: sulphuric acid, SO2 emissions., start-up, shutdown, process upsets, smelter operation, stack design, preheating systems, caesium catalyst, training, SO2 scrubbing.

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Dundee's world-class sulphuric acid plant

Summary

In April of this year, Dundee Precious Metals officially opened its new sulphuric acid plant in Tsumeb, Namibia. This project demonstrates the latest in sustainable technology and a commitment to social responsibility beyond project implementation.

Abstract

Dundee Precious Metals, a Canadian mining company, is located in Tsumeb, Namibia approximately 430 km north of the capital, Windhoek. Tsumeb is the closest town to the Etosha National Park and has a population of 14,000 people. The Tsumeb smelter was constructed in the early 1960s to process concentrate from the Tsumeb copper mine and is one of only five commercial-scale smelters in Africa. It is linked by rail to the Atlantic port of Walvis Bay in Namibia. The primary smelter is a refurbished Ausmelt furnace and the facility employs close to 600 people, including contractors. Keywords: new sulphuric acid plant, Namibia, Dundee Precious Metals, Pierce Smith converters, gas cleaning, cooling water system, effluent treatment, slurry filtration.

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Sulphur and sulphuric acid in Southern Africa

Summary

Sub-Saharan Africa's rapidly expanding mining and mineral industries produce and consume significant volumes of sulphuric acid, but the region remains a large net sulphur importer.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa’s oil and mineral wealth has attracted considerable inward investment by overseas companies. While the recent stall in the commodities market has put back many plans for new investments, especially in the central copper belt of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, environmental improvements to smelters are generating considerable volumes of new acid which are substituting for sulphur imports in some areas. Keywords: ZAMBIA, NAMIBIA, CONGO, DRC, COPPER, NICKEL, URANIUM, ZINC, SMELTER, REFINERY, NIGERIA, DANGOTE, GLENCORE

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New sulphur production in China

Summary

The sour gas fields of Sichuan and new refineries on the east coast are generating increasing quantities of domestic sulphur for China. With demand from phosphates slowing, could this lead to falling Chinese imports of sulphur?

Abstract

Chinese sulphur production has risen rapidly over the past few years, from steady growth in refinery output and several large new sour gas projects in the southern province of Sichuan. So far, domestic demand, especially for phosphate production, has kept pace with this, and China has continued to be the world’s biggest sulphur importer, averaging around 10 million t/a. But can that continue for many more years? Keywords: SOUR, CBM, UNCONVENTIONAL, SICHUAN, YUANBA, PUGUANG, REFINERY, DAP, IMPORTS

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New applications for sulphur in polymers

Summary

Dr. Saeed Alhassan, Assistant Professor and Director of the Petroleum Institute Gas Research Centre in Abu Dhabi presents the results of work on incorporating sulphur into polyethylene.

Abstract

The story of sulphur in United Arab Emirates (UAE) is interesting not only because of the expected level of production, but also from the challenge in marketing these quantities and its impact on the sulphur market price. Currently, the UAE produces more than 6 million tonnes of sulphur per annum, which places the UAE among the top six producers in the world. Most of this production is exported, since the local uses for this element is minimal. With the expected increase in energy demand, followed by an increase in exploration and production of sour gas fields around the world, it is inevitable that the sulphur market might experience an excess supply situation that puts pressure on prices. Keywords: UAE, ABU DHABI, HDPE, LDPE, POLYETHYLENE

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South Korea's sulphuric acid industry

Summary

David Hayes reports from South Korea, where major acid producer LS-Nikko Copper Inc. is expanding production of purified sulphuric acid (PSA) to meet rising demand from the semiconductor industry.

Abstract

LS-Nikko Copper Inc is expecting the start-up of its fifth purified sulphuric acid (PSA) plant in the second half of 2016. Planned to meet growing domestic and overseas demand for PSA from semiconductor manufacturers, construction began on the new plant in early 2015. The new facility is the first of two new PSA plants that LS-Nikko is due to complete over the next 18 months, with further production expansion under consideration should semiconductor manufacturer clients continue to expand output. Demand for semiconductors is expected to grow for another two years at least. Keywords: NIKKO, ONSAN, PSA, PURIFIED, LG, COPPER, ELECTRONIC, INDONESIA

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