BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Why amine systems fail in sour service

Summary

Amine systems failures have cost the industry billions of dollars over the last 30 years. In this article, P. le Grange, M. Sheilan and B. Spooner of Amine Experts draw attention to the highest probability threats to a facility's operability and reliability. The most prevalent causes of failure in sour amine systems are determined and strategies to prevent these are given.

Abstract

Equipment malfunction or unplanned shutdown of an amine system can have a devastating effect on a production company’s profitability and an equally serious impact on the environment. The goal of this paper is to determine, and focus, the industry’s attention on the highest probability threats to their facility’s operability and reliability. The threats were identified by analysing hundreds of cases of amine system failure investigated by Amine Experts and others industry leaders over the last 18 years. These include detailed root-cause analysis related to corrosion, foaming, hydraulic restrictions and incorrect specification that have limited or crippled facilities the world over. Keywords: amine, sour gas, failure, off-specification, foaming, corrosion, heat stable amine salts, degradation products, amino acids, Amine Experts

Add to basket


Sulphur management for an unconventional gas-condensate field

Summary

Nowadays, emission regulations dictate deep removal for all sulphur components in natural gas processing plants. M. Jacques of Technip and A. König-Adolph of ENGIE E&P review the main outcomes of a conceptual study conducted by Technip for ENGIE E&P Deutschland GmbH for a gas-condensate field development located in Germany, processing raw gas with a low content of H2S (<0.2 vol-%), moderate H2S to CO2 ratio (2.5-3 volume basis) and low H2S to organic sulphur compounds ratio (5 volume basis).

Abstract

Concept definition/pre-FEED is known to be crucial for successful project development (Fig. 1). The best time to influence the cost and profitability of projects is during the early phase. Shortening the concept phase may result in significant cost and schedule overruns when the project goes to detail engineering phase. Pre-FEED adds a further level of detail to the shortlisted options identified in the basic phase to achieve more precise definition, a better cost estimate and, ultimately, selection of a single option for FEED. Keywords: sulphur recovery, Technip, ENGIE E&P, Märkisch Buchholz gas condensate field, desulphurisation, chemical solvent, hybrid solvent, purification, molecular sieves, silica gel, H2S scavenger, biological sulphur recovery, mercaptans

Add to basket


Simplification of the modified Claus process

Summary

P. D. Clark, N. I. Dowling, D. Li, M.Huang and S. S. Bhella of ASRL describe modifications to the existing Claus sulphur recovery process which aim to simplify the overall design and increase the efficiency of the system. The key modification is to incorporate a catalytic section in the combustion chamber to enhance hydrocarbon and CS2 conversion. A conventional tail gas treatment system could also be replaced by conversion of remaining sulphur values to ammonium sulphate fertilizer, turning the very simplified Claus process into a cogeneration system for sulphur and fertilizer.

Abstract

The Claus process is used in the oil and gas industry to convert H2S to sulphur and water. It is a complex multi-stage technology which requires a combination of combustion and catalytic stages with a final tail gas process also needed to attain overall recoveries of >99.9% of sulphur. As such, it is one of the most efficient processes in industrial operation in terms of emissions. Without the modern Claus process, refineries and sour gas plants could not operate to today’s expected norms of environmental stewardship. Keywords: Claus furnace, sulphur, fertilizer, cogeneration, ammonium sulphate, ceramic catalyst, catalyst modified Claus furnace, in-pipe converter, liquid sulphur degassing, Claus tail gas

Add to basket


Acid dew point measurement and control

Summary

Acid dew point measurement of sulphur condensables is desirable for controlling critical process parameters as well as plant safety in processes where SO3 gas is present. In this article C. Chothani of Breen Energy Solutions discusses the application of acid dew point measurement technology to a copper smelter in Spain as well as the need for a new sensor for use in sulphuric acid plants.

Abstract

Acid dew point measurement in a copper smelter Copper is a ubiquitous metal used in wide ranging industries and is a critical part of our daily lives. The process of copper extraction from its ores consists of grinding, roasting, smelting and ultimately electrolysis. The process for extracting metals from sulphurous ores was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore1. In this process, the sulphurous ore is injected along with air into the furnace and the smelting reactions take place, mostly in-flight, before the particles settle in a bath at the bottom of the furnace where the copper matte forms the lower layer and the slag forms the upper layer. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a byproduct of this reaction, which is generally captured further downstream and sent to a sulphuric acid plant for the production of strong acid. Keywords: copper smelter, Atlantic Copper, Breen Energy Solution, flash smelting, kinetic dew point measurement, sulphation air, equilibrium algorithm, sulphuric acid production, Breen AbSensor-ADM-SA

Add to basket


India's Refining Industry

Summary

India's refining capacity has nearly tripled in the past 15 years, and the country has emerged as a major refining hub, with a knock-on effect on sulphur output.

Abstract

With the slowdown in China’s previously breakneck growth, India has become the focus of world attention, with its GDP growth rate actually accelerating in the past couple of years from 5% in 2013 to 7.6% in 2016, and 2017 is forecast to see 7.8% growth, boosted by low oil prices which have assisted India – a major net importer of oil, and making it the fastest growing of the world’s major economies. Although concerns remain about debt, corruption, creaking infrastructure and the fate of the government’s reform programme, growth in sectors like IT and media have been major bright spots. Keywords: IOC, ONGC, RELIANCE, ESSAR, JAMNAGAR, SRU, DIESEL, GASOLINE

Add to basket