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Recent innovations in acid equipment

Summary

The current focus of sulphuric acid plant technology providers is in the reduction of plant emissions, the development of equipment with better performance and reliability and the use of better materials of construction. This article focuses on recent innovations and the latest high performance sulphuric acid equipment from Chemetics and NORAM Engineering.

Abstract

Chemetics’ innovative equipment designs Sulphuric acid plants deal with highly aggressive chemicals (SO2 and H2SO4) which put a lot of stress on its plant equipment. The majority of operating and maintenance problems in sulphuric acid plants were historically easy to identify. Typically, they could be found on almost any acid plant after several years of operation. Operators of sulphuric acid plants always try to seek better technology that is characterised by the following criteria: Keywords: sulphuric acid equipment, converter, alloy tower, acid tower, acid distributer, gas exchanger, reactor, SX, SARAMET, high silicon alloy, acid cooler, split flow gas-gas exchanger, BAQIK pseudo isothermal reactor, NORAM, Chemetics.

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The modular approach for SRUs

Summary

Modularisation provides a solution to many specific challenges faced by the oil and gas industry. This article discusses the benefits of modular construction of sulphur recovery units (SRUs), what makes modular construction viable, and key factors to consider and follow when designing modular units. Highlights of recent modular SRU projects are also presented.

Abstract

In recent years the modularisation of process units has become essential for harsh environments where there are limitations and significant delays to using the stick-built model. Sulphur recovery units (SRUs) are very amenable to modularisation and are commonly designed to be modularised. In general terms, modularisation involves designing and fabricating “sub-assemblies” (modules) of a process unit at a facility located away from the final location of the unit, then shipping, installing, and completing interconnections between modules at the site. Well-designed modular units can maintain many of the accessibility and maintainability advantages of stick-built units. Keywords: modular SRU, modularisation, shipping constraints, module fabrication, module, fabrication shop, stick built, offshore applications, site installation, SmartSulf, EUROCLAUS, shop fabrication, skid assembly, RATE, Amec Foster Wheeler, Prosernat, Jacobs, KT – Kinetics Technology.

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Lean sour gas treatment in China

Summary

New processes for the treatment of lean sour gas from coal gasification plants have been developed by Keyon Process in China. The DSR process is a regenerative SO2 removal process and the ECOSA process is a wet gas sulphuric acid process. The DSR process is capable of removing SO2 to ultra-low levels for environmental compliance and can be combined with the ECOSA process to produce sulphuric acid or the Claus process to produce sulphur. The DSR unit can also be used as a tail gas treating unit downstream of a Claus unit.

Abstract

China is a vast country that has insuff­icient oil and gas resources to meet the country’s energy requirements, but is rich in coal reserves. In the 1970s, the Chinese government built 13 syngas plants based on the reforming of natural gas and the gasification of residual oil to improve its underdeveloped industrial and agricultural situation. The syngas produced was used to make fertilizers. Keywords: coal gasification, ECOSA process, DSR Process, Keyon Process, coal-fired flue gas, sour gas, purification unit, flue gas treatment, sour gas treatment, S-Plus process, Claus unit, revamp, desulphurisation, sulphur recovery, wet gas sulphuric acid process

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Sulphur enhanced fertilizers

Summary

Companies are now increasingly offering fertilizers with additional sulphur nutrient content as a way of enhancing yields and helping to combat sulphur deficiencies in some parts of the world.

Abstract

The major source of demand for sulphur and sulphuric acid continues to be from its use in the preparation of fertilizers, particularly phosphate fertilizers. Modern agriculture requires the application of large tonnages of elemental nutrients in order to replace those removed from the soil by plant growth, and key amongst these, after nitrogen, is phosphate. Conversion of phosphate-bearing rocks into phosphate fertilizer is achieved via the application of sulphuric acid, and phosphate fertilizer demand accounts for around 56% of all sulphuric acid use, mainly as the fertilizers single superphosphate (SSP), produced from direct application of sulphuric acid to phosphate rock, triple superphosphate (TSP) – like SSP but with an intermediate step where the sulphuric acid is used to produce phosphoric acid, which is then reacted with phosphate rock – and the higher analysis fertilizers mono- and di-ammonium phosphate (MAP/DAP), which require the reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid (which in turn has been produced from sulphuric acid). Keywords: Sulphate, bentonite, NPK, NPKS, NPS, thiogro, urea, UFT, phosphate, thiosulphate, micronized, gypsum, sulphur-enhanced fertilizers

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Thiopaq-SQ: the SRU for lean acid gases

Summary

Biotechnological treatment of sour and acid gases using the Thiopaq technology platform is a proven technology. J. Klok, G. van Heeringen, R. de Rink and J. Wijnbelt of Paqell introduce Thiopaq-SQ: the next generation of the Thiopaq O&G process for environmentally friendly gas desulphurisation. In comparison with alternative SRUs, the Thiopaq-SQ process realises a major reduction in opex by ensuring optimal activity and selectivity of the catalyst.

Abstract

The oil and gas industry is facing challenging times as it is confronted with a prolonged price weakness of crude oil and natural gas, combined with a declining number of easily recoverable sweet gas resources. Thus, there is a strong demand for flexible and cost-effective desulphurisation solutions to enable the development of more challenging wells. Cost-effective gas desulphurisation is particularly challenging for projects with small to medium quantities of sulphur. This article provides one of the best approaches to overcome these demanding circumstances. Keywords: biotechnological desulphurisation, Thiopaq O&G, Thiopaq-SQ, Paqell, sour gas, oil and gas industry, bioreactor, sulphur recovery, H2S removal, bio-sulphur, fertilizer, biological catalyst, sulphide-oxidising bacteria, lean acid gas.

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