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Publication > Issue > Articles

Acid catalyst upgrades

Summary

Sulphuric acid catalyst upgrades provide a solution to balancing operational and emissions requirements. In this article, Topsoe reports on the benefits of upgrading the catalyst loading in sulphuric acid plants, MECS discusses how a new DSC tool has been used to develop new improved sulphuric acid catalysts and BASF introduces its new caesium based catalyst.

Abstract

Sulphuric acid producers are facing more challenging emissions legislation all over the world. Plants that were originally designed for 99.7% conversion of SO2 are now being asked to meet conversion levels of 99.9% or more. At the same time, competition within the bulk chemical market in general, and the sulphuric acid business in particular, is fierce and plants need to run as efficiently as possible to stay profitable. Keywords: sulphuric acid, catalyst, Topsoe, MECS, BASF, DSC, emissions, caesium catalyst, cesium catalyst, VK69, catalyst screening, LEAP5, SCX-2000, catalyst formulation, catalyst activity, catalyst loading, PeGASyS, O4-115 Quattro

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Improve performance with simulation

Summary

With the latest advances in simulation and modelling of the acid gas removal unit and sulphur recovery facilities, simulators have become a virtual process plant, providing operators with a useful tool to optimise operations while meeting product specifications and stringent environmental regulations.

Abstract

Sulphur recovery facilities play an important role in industrial complexes, even if they are not classified as production units. The dangerous nature of H2S, as well as the severe operating conditions of the sulphur plant make it mandatory to apply the highest levels of process design, operation, personnel and environmental safety for the entire plant life. Plant reliability and availability are also important, since unplanned SRU shutdowns can result in loss of production that cannot be tolerated in current market conditions. Keywords: simulation, modelling, ProTreat, sulphur recovery, gas treatment, heat stable salts, HSS, waste heat boiler, sulphur condenser, two-zone furnace, Optimized Gas Treating, Sulsim, Sulphur Experts, Aspen HYSYS, Sulsim Sulfur Recovery, Claus catalytic converter, selective oxidation, degasser, furnace, gas plant, refineries, gas processors, sales gas specification, KT- Kinetics Technology, Virtual Materials Group, supervisory analytics, SA-SRU, DCS, flare, engineering tool, equipment, sulphur allotropes, VMGSim

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Catalytic reduction of SO2 to sulphur using natural gas

Summary

In recent years the urgency to solve the problem of sulphur utilisation from waste metallurgical gases has increased dramatically. O.G. Eremin and A.V. Tarasov discuss pilot investigations conducted by the State Research Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals (Gintsvetmet) in Moscow, Russia, to study the process of catalytic reduction of SO2 using natural gas.

Abstract

The Gintsvetmet Institute, in conjunction with the Norilsk mining and metallurgical plant, has formerly developed a high-temperature method of sulphur recovery from metallurgical waste gases, which was implemented on an industrial scale. However, this method of obtaining sulphur has a significant drawback, that is, the increased consumption of expensive natural gas (1,000 m3 NG per tonne of S obtained). Keywords: waste metallurgical gases, catalytic reduction, natural gas, sulphur dioxide, SO2, methane method, catalyst.

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Sour gas project update

Summary

Sulphur production from sour natural gas will continue to be the largest slice of new sulphur capacity over the next few years.

Abstract

Sulphur from processing sour natural gas – initially in western Canada and the US – was responsible for the sea change in sulphur production, moving from on-purpose Frasch mining from underground sulphur deposits to involuntary production from recovered sulphur. While Canada’s fields have declined over the past couple of decades, as fields mature and cheap US shale gas undercuts more expensive sour gas production, expertise gained from these wells has now moved to other regions of the world. Keywords: HABSHAN, SHAH, WASIT, GHASHA, PARS, IRAN, SAUDI ARABIA, OMAN, CHINA, PUGUANG, CHUANGDONGBEI, FADHILI, TENGIZ, KASHAGAN, YUANBA, YOLOTAN, GALKYNYSH

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The future of Chinese sulphuric acid supply

Summary

As China continues to produce additional volumes of acid from copper smelting, will the country become a net acid exporter, or will domestic sulphur burning capacity be displaced instead?

Abstract

Sulphur consumption in China is dominated by sulphuric acid production from sulphur-burning acid plants, mainly destined for phosphate processing, but China’s sulphuric acid production is supplemented by smelter acid, supply of which has been growing rapidly, and there is also still some production from pyrite roasting. While pyrite roasting has been in long term decline for many years, the relative standing of smelter acid vs sulphur-based acid will determine whether China becomes a long-term net exporter of sulphuric acid. Keywords: SMELTER, SMELTING, COPPER, PYRITE, PYRITES, KOREA, TAIWAN, DAP

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Controlling refinery SO2 emissions

Summary

DuPont Clean Technologies describes two wet scrubbing options to help refiners meet increasingly more stringent sulphur dioxide emissions legislation even during start-up, shut-down and maintenance conditions.

Abstract

Refiners around the world are facing stricter emission limit requirements from national or regional bodies. The recent sulphur emission target changes in China are only one of the many examples. EU countries, as well as India are looking into the same matter. On the other side of the Atlantic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is proposing a new Clean Air Act targeting the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from petroleum refineries. The suggested new rule – RIN 2060-AQ75 – would revise emission control requirements for flares, storage tanks and coking units at oil refineries, as well as eliminate emission limit exemptions during start-up, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) periods. Keywords: COKER, H2S, DYNAWAVE, BELCO, EMISSION, SCRUBBING, PARTICULATE

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Sulphur: market stability in 2017

Summary

Fiona Boyd and Freda Gordon, directors at consultancy Acuity Commodities, take a look at the major developments affecting the sulphur market this year.

Abstract

During the first half of 2017, the theme of stability overhung the global sulphur market. This stability is indicative of the global market being relatively balanced following some price volatility in recent years because of tighter supply availability. This article will review the state of the market over the last several months and what the key developments to watch moving forward are. Keywords: MERGER, ACQUISITION, M&A, SUPPLY, DEMAND, PHOSPHATE, CAPROLACTAM, MOROCCO, CHINA

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