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Publication > Issue > Articles

Oil palm nutrient needs

Summary

Oil palm is grown on 18 million hectares worldwide, yielding four tonnes of oil or more per hectare, making it the world's most efficient oil crop. Indonesia and Malaysia are the main palm oil producing countries, accounting for around 85 percent of world output.

Abstract

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the world’s highest yielding perennial oil crop. The species, once a native of west and southwest Africa, is now cultivated in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Sumatra, Central America, the West Indies and several Indian and Pacific Ocean islands. Single-stemmed mature palms grow to a height of 20 metres and produce new pinnate leaves, 3-5 metres long, every year. Palms produce a reddish colour fruit, roughly the size of a large plum, in large bunches. These take 5-6 months to mature and weigh 5-30 kg, depending on the tree’s age. Keywords: Crop nutrition; Oil palm; Palm oil; Palm kernel oil; Palm; Malaysia; Indonesia; International Fertilizer Association; IFA; K+S; Haifa; RSPO; Nutrients; Deficiency;Yield; Fertilization; Fertilizer recommendations; Applications rates; Potassium; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Magnesium; Boron; Copper; Zinc; Urea; Triple superphosphate; TSP; Rock phosphate; Ammonium sulphate; AS; Muriate of potash; MOP; Kieserite

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China at the crossroads

Summary

China is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of urea and finished phosphate products. Yet the country's fertilizer industry is at the crossroads currently due to structural oversupply. We report on the outlook for China's nitrogen and phosphate sectors, particularly the prospects for capacity closures, diversification and restructuring.

Abstract

China wields enormous influence over the global fertilizer industry. Whatever the product, from primary nutrients to speciality fertilizers, from feed phosphates to sulphate of potash (SOP), any analysis of the global marketplace inevitably returns to one key question: how will China behave? Chinese agriculture now accounts for about one-third of overall global fertilizer consumption. Over the last two decades ago, the country has grown to become the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of urea and finished phosphates. Having reached self-sufficiency, the country has also emerged as a major nitrogen and phosphates exporter, placing a significant share of its production on the international market1. Keywords: Chinese; Industry; Report; China; Nitrogen; Phosphate; Phosphates; Sector; Urea; Diammonium phosphate; DAP; Monoammonium phosphate; MAP; NPK; Domestic market; International market; Production; Output; Supply; Operating rate; Operating rates; Exports; Oversupply; Capacity; Overcapacity; Costs; Closures; Restructuring; Diversification; Pollution; Air quality

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Fertilizer handling orders and contracts

Summary

The transportation and distribution of fertilizers and associated raw materials by road, rail and sea relies on safe and efficient bulk handling and storage. We provide a round-up of major recent equipment contracts.

Abstract

Custom portal reclaimer for Agrium AMECO has over 80 years of experience in the bulk handling business. Notably, the company designed and manufactured the world’s first portal reclaimer for Morocco’s phosphate mines in 1965. The French-based firm also went on to start-up the first portal reclaimer in the United States in 1969. AMECO currently supplies stackers, reclaimers, blending systems and shiploaders for fertilizer, pulp, biomass and coal power plants and port terminals. It recently commissioned a 480 t/h custom portal reclaimer with a rail span of 54 metres for urea handling at Agrium’s Borger, Texas, plant. The innovative storage system designed and installed by AMECO drags urea from a pile to 20 degrees below ground. The extra storage capacity provided by the new state-of-the art reclaimer is 50 percent greater than other standard equipment available on the market, according to AMECO. Keywords: Fertilizer Handling Storage Blending Russia; United States; Morocco; Jordan; France; Germany; Thailand; Netherlands; South Africa; Ethiopia; Ameco; FLSmidth; Sackett-Waconia; Sackett; EMT; DSH; DSH Systems; Bedeschi; Siwertell; Arab Potash Company; APC; JPMC; Jordan Phosphate Mines Company; Yara; PotashCorp; Anuvia; Agrium; OCP; PhosAgro

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Nitrogen projects head east

Summary

We take a look at new nitrogen capacity being planned in Russia and the countries of central Asia. The Former Soviet Union remains a regional bright spot for new plant construction, with three million tonnes of extra ammonia capacity expected to come on-stream in Russia alone between 2016 and 2019.

Abstract

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Polysulphate for NPK and PK granulation

Summary

Kim ten Wolde and Anthony Zanelli of ICL Fertilizers explain how existing NPK and PK fertilizers can benefit from the addition of ICL's Polysulphate fertilizer and the sulphur, potassium, magnesium and calcium it contains.

Abstract

There is a growing need for NPK fertilizers in modern agriculture. A wide variety of NPK fertilizers – tailored to meet the needs of various crops, soils and climatic conditions – can be prepared using ICL’s Polysulphate as a raw material. Polysulphate also adds value by replacing the inert filler material commonly used in NPKs with valuable plant nutrients. Adding Polysulphate as a constituent is an ideal way of introducing sulphur into any grade of NPK. It can also be used to incorporate sulphur and other essential nutrients into PK fertilizer grades. The addition of Polysulphate to NPK+S products, because it reduces chloride levels, makes it well suited to blends used on chloride-sensitive crops. Polysulphate, when combined with nitrogen, ensures that sulphur and nitrogen release to crops is properly timed. The presence of magnesium also enables Polysulphate to replenish the crop removal of this element from soils. Valuably, standard Polysulphate is licensed as an organic fertilizer in the UK, Germany, Italy, Holland, USA and Canada. Keywords: Polysulphate; Polyhalite; Mining; Direct application; Granulation; Efficiency; NPK; NPK fertilizers; NPKs; PK; Kieserite; Muriate of Potash; MOP; Sulphate of potash; SOP; Urea; Diammonium phosphate; DAP; Filler; ICL; ICL Group; UK; Netherlands; Amsterdam; Germany; Ludwigshafen; Boulby; Mine

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P recovery: from evolution to revolution

Summary

Full-scale deployment of phosphorus recovery technologies is on the rise. In Europe, greater interest in P recovery is directly linked to the debate surrounding the European Commission's circular economy policy package. Christian Kabbe and Fabian Kraus of Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Berlin report on the latest commercial developments in nutrient recovery technology.

Abstract

Challenges remain about how to transform the circular economy from a buzzword into something more tangible and concrete. Fortunately, a growing number of nutrient recovery technologies are becoming increasingly commercial and marketable as they mature. But ultimate commercial success will not depend on pure recovery alone, as the nature of the intermediate and final products obtained also governs viability. The key challenge now is to build on progress to date, and use this as a springboard to bridge the gap between the recovery of secondary nutrients (supply) and the market for these (demand). This will require the creation of credible markets and viable value chains. Keywords: Phosphorus; Sustainability; Struvite; Phosphate; Phosphates; Nitrogen; Recovery; Recycling; Secondary; Nutrients; Energy; Wastewater; Sewage sludge; Ash; Circular economy; EU; ICL; EcoPhos; EXTRAPHOS; TetraPhos; Outotec; AshDec; Ostara; WASSTRIP; Pearl; Lysotherm

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Kainite crystallization flotation (KCF) unit

Summary

K+S KALI GmbH is investing heavily in new production technology and environmental mitigation measures at its Werra production plant in Germany. The construction of the kainite crystallization flotation (KCF) unit forms the centrepiece of company efforts to cut the volume of wastewater discharged into nearby rivers. This major investment should also safeguard the future of K+S's largest potash operation in Germany.

Abstract

The Werra plant Werra, K+S Group’s biggest potash plant, is a large-scale complex spread across four sites in two German states: Hattorf and Wintershall in Hesse, and Unterbreizbach and Merkers in Thuringia. The plant produces fertilizers alongside numerous technical and industrial products. These have a wide-range of uses, including pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs and animal feed. Werra employs almost 4,400 people, including 300 trainees, making it an important employer and training centre regionally. The plant also supports and generates significant income for local businesses and is major tax payer for municipal government. This makes the Werra plant a vital part of the economy of eastern Hesse and western Thuringia, and a key contributor to the region’s social development. Keywords: Potash; Technology; Innovation; K+S; K+S Kali; K+S Group; Werra; Wesa; River; Rivers; Germany; Kainite; Crystallization; Flotation; Crystallisation; Recovery; KCF; Unit; Recycling; Saline; Wastewater; Sulphate of potash; SOP; Potash; Production

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41st Annual Clearwater Convention

Summary

The AIChE's 41st International Phosphate Fertilizer & Sulphuric Acid Technology Conference was held at its usual venue, the Sheraton Sand Key Resort, on Florida's Gulf coast on 9-10 June.

Abstract

For more than 40 years now, industry engineers have gathered at Florida’s idyllic Clearwater Beach for the AIChE’s two-day annual convention on sulphuric acid and phosphate fertilizer technology. The convention, which is always run on a Friday and Saturday, is renowned for its relaxed atmosphere and ability to combine business with friendship, food and family. An eclectic of mix of international and US delegates attended the 2017 convention. Water treatment and solids handling workshops were held on Friday afternoon, in parallel with the convention’s traditional sulphuric acid workshop. Keywords: Conference; Review; 41st; Clearwater; Convention; 2017; AIChE; Florida; Evoqua; Amerair; ChemTreat; ArrMaz; Ekato; Mosaic; Hatch; Jacobs; Jacobs Engineering; University of South Florida; Philadelphia Mixing Solutions; Siemens; PegasusTSI

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