BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Sulphur's sea change

Summary

The impact of new International Maritime Organisation (IMO) rules on sulphur content of shipping fuels and sulphur dioxide emissions from shipping are proving to be a headache for shippers, refiners and potentially the entire sulphur industry.

Abstract

From January 1st 2020, the maximum permissible sulphur content of marine bunker fuels will be 0.5% by weight. This target has been set by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in order to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from ships and associated health risks for people living in coastal areas. However, with only two years to go before the implementation deadline, the number of ships which have converted to scrubbing technology and the number of refiners capable of supplying low sulphur bunker fuels remains far short of what will be required to avoid a major price shock for shipping companies. Keywords: SOX, MARPOL, IMO, SHIP, SHIPPING, ECA, EMSSION, EMISSIONS, SCRUBBING, SCRUBBER, HSFO, LNG, MGO, GASOIL, REFINERY, REFINER, DISTILLATE

Add to basket


A new lease of life for sulphur concrete?

Summary

Sulphur's use as a binding agent to produce tough, chemical-resistant concrete has a long history, but little commercial success to show for it. But new concerns about conventional concrete's CO2 output and worries about sulphur surpluses in some regions are leading to renewed interest.

Abstract

The use of sulphur as a strengthening agent in materials dates back centuries. Sulphur’s ability to link between polymer strands or other components of a substance has seen it used in rubber (vulcanisation), and more recently in sulphur polymers (see Sulphur 366)1. In the area of construction, US patents from 1844 and 1859 describe the use of sulphur in an improved cement, and in 1900 another described a sulphur composition “suitable for roofing, conduits, pavements, ornamental figures and the coating of steel ship hulls”2. Keywords: CO2, PORTLAND, CEMENT, DCPD, THIOCRETE, SHELL, SULFCRETE, KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA

Add to basket


Keeping the conversation flowing

Summary

The 4th Annual Middle East Sulphur Plant Operations Network Forum (MESPON 2017), organised by UniverSUL Consulting and supported by ADNOC took place in Abu Dhabi, UAE, 15-17 October 2017.

Abstract

Each year the attendance at MESPON has been steadily growing, with approximately 250 delegates comprising more than 60% operators the event is fast becoming one of the industry’s premier events for technical knowledge sharing of sour gas treating and sulphur recovery operating experience. The aim of the MESPON forum is to ‘connect the dots’ – to maximise utilisation of current experience and expertise in the Middle East via networking and to provide access to the knowledge and resources of the global sulphur community across the globe from Western Canada, to Europe and the Far East. Keywords: Middle East, sulphur, plant operations, forum, conference, MESPON, UniverSUL Consulting, ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, shutdown, tail gas treating, asset optimisation, temperature swing absorption, TSA

Add to basket


Oxygen enrichment for grassroot SRUs

Summary

The almost unanimous reason cited for not deploying oxygen enrichment for grassroot sulphur recovery units (SRUs), despite the manifest benefits, is that "no oxygen was available at the site." It is this misconception leading to a missed opportunity for tremendous value creation that Uday Parekh of Unpaar Performance LLC addresses in this article.

Abstract

Oxygen enrichment is a well-established technology for increasing the capacity of SRUs and has been practiced commercially for over 30 years with more than 150 SRUs having deployed this technology worldwide. However, virtually all of these projects have been for the retrofitting of existing SRUs with very few grassroots oxygen-enriched SRUs, except for the niche sector of coal gasification wherein incremental oxygen is available very economically. Keywords: oxygen, oxygen enrichment, grassroot plant, sulphur recovery unit, VSA, ASU, economics, cryogenic, emissions, COPE, Fluor, WorleyParsons, Linde, Air Products

Add to basket


API 610 compliant Lewis® sulphur pumps

Summary

The new Lewis® product line includes a vertical type sulphur pump designed for API 610 service. H. McKinnon and S. Race of Weir Minerals detail the differences between conventional vertical sulphur pumps and those that meet API 610 requirements.

Abstract

Weir Minerals has been manufacturing vertical sump pumps for molten sulphur applications since the 1940s. For many years, all that was required for their use in chemical, oil and gas plants was a standard sulphur duty pump. However, in the year 2000 it became necessary for sulphur pumps to be built to more stringent specifications as set forth in the API 610 standards. These standards, regulated by the American Petroleum Institute, cover all centrifugal pumps in the petroleum, heavy duty chemical and gas industry services. Keywords: Weir Minerals, Lewis®, vertical sulphur pump, API 610, API 610 requirements, viscosity, keyway, rotor balancing, discharge pipe weldment, hydraulics, material, ball bearings, performance test, resonance test

Add to basket


Meeting sulphuric acid catalyst challenges

Summary

Catalyst suppliers continue to develop new improved sulphuric acid catalysts to meet current and future challenges. In this article we report on Topsoe's new VK-711 LEAP5™ catalyst, offering a superior carrier system and an optimised chemical composition for improved intrinsic activity; BASF's new shape Quattro catalyst, providing a step change in catalyst activity with limited increases in pressure drop; and DuPont's MECS® GEAR® catalyst, featuring a hexa-lobed ring structure that increases the void space between catalyst rings, decreasing pressure drop and improving dust handling.

Abstract

Legislation limits for the emission of SO2 have been steadily decreasing, and how these demands are met influence the profitability of sulphuric acid plants. In the early 2000s acid plant operators who needed to boost plant performance could only choose between adding more catalyst of the same type, or adding caesium-promoted catalyst to the final beds. If there was no room for additional catalyst, and caesium-promoted catalyst was already being used, the plant operator had little option other than implementing a costly revamp of the plant. Keywords: sulphuric acid catalyst, Topsoe, BASF, DuPont, carrier system, activity, pressure drop, catalyst shape, catalyst size, dust, cesium, caesium, Quattro, GEAR, LEAP5, Mexicana de Cobre

Add to basket