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Publication > Issue > Articles

Plant Manager+ Problem No. 46: CO2 cooler failure

Summary

CO2 coolers in the inter stages of CO2 compressors typically cool down the CO2 stream by means of cooling water. It is preferable for the cooling water through the tubes to have a minimum velocity to avoid fouling and corrosion issues. This is not a problem after the first and second stage when CO2 pressures are still relatively low. However, after the third stage the CO2 pressure is about 80 bar, too high (meaning too expensive) to have the CO2 on the shell side. Vendors specify coolers with the cooling water on the shell side and the CO2 through the tubes. This however introduces several failure mechanisms: As cooling water velocities cannot be guaranteed to be above a minimum value in the complete shell, fouling can occur. Also, chlorides accumulate (even when chloride levels are relatively low) and cause chloride stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless-steel tubes. In this type of cooler choosing duplex as the material of construction for the tubes is the best choice for a reliable heat exchanger.

Abstract

Irfan Rashid, working in Operations at FFBL in Pakistan starts the discussion with the following question: Does anyone have experience of CO2 cooler failure where failure occurs after the third stage of the CO2 compressor? Keywords: CO2 cooler, CO2 compressor, cooling water, materials of construction, stress corrosion cracking, tube, exchanger, baffle, U bend, U tube, intercooler, duplex, crack, failure

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Nitrogen + Syngas 2018

Summary

CRU will be hosting the 31st Nitrogen+Syngas 2018 International Conference and Exhibition at Gothia Towers in Gothenburg, Sweden from 26 February to 1 March 2018. The content-rich programme has been carefully structured to provide a blend of market analysis, technology trends, operating experiences and networking opportunities.

Abstract

The annual CRU Nitrogen+Syngas Conference and Exhibition regularly attracts over 700 attendees and is the premier event for the nitrogen and syngas industry. The 2018 conference with its comprehensive programme is geared to maximise professional development throughout the four day event. The large exhibition that runs alongside the conference includes more than 80 exhibitors covering the full nitrogen + syngas value chain, addressing a large range of technical concerns and offering solutions and operational expertise in the following areas: EPC services and process technologies, equipment and materials, emissions and environmental technologies, fertilizer finishing and packing, and reliability and maintenance services. Keywords: CRU, Nitrogen + Syngas 2018, conference, exhibition, Gothenburg, Sweden, programme, market analysis, technology trends, operating experiences, networking, UreaKnowHow.com clinic, technical showcase, value added fertilizers, digital solutions, expanding urea production, steam reforming, add-on ammonia converter, ammonia plants, scale up, NFCL, revamping, CO2 removal, plant relocation UAN, urea solution

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Packed absorbers for deep CO2 removal

Summary

When designing or revamping acid gas absorbers with structured or random packing, one must be very careful to ensure that the analysis correctly accounts for packing size and type on performance. In this article, R. H. Weiland and N. A. Hatcher of Optimized Gas Treating, Inc. demonstrate how the ProTreat® mass and heat transfer rate-based simulator can be used to show the effect of packing size and type on performance for two deep CO2 removal applications, one in LNG production and the other in an ammonia syngas unit.

Abstract

When an ideal stage calculation method is used to design or assess performance of an absorber in a CO2 removal unit, the only way for packing size (and type) to be brought into play is through calculation of the stage count (or the number of transfer units) and then applying a stage efficiency or a value for the height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP). Keywords: Optimized Gas Treating, ProTreat, mass and heat transfer rate, simulator, packing size, packing type, performance, CO2 removal, LNG production, ammonia, syngas, absorber, column, solvent, amines, modelling, column diameter, tower revamp, temperature profile, concentration profile, hydraulic load

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SynCOR™: Modern technology for large chemical complexes

Summary

Topsoe's SynCOR™ technologies offer a smart and safe way to utilise the world's natural resources and diversify product slate, while ensuring minimal environmental impact and an attractive return on investment.

Abstract

As the standard of living continues to rise for a growing world population, more and more people, companies, and nations acknowledge the growing threat of climate change and depleting essential natural resources. This realisation has led to an intensified drive for smart industrial solutions that utilise natural resources in an optimal way, while reducing the environmental impact. The chemical industry is no exception. In the years to come, we will need to optimise return of investment and lower the environmental impact of our operations. Keywords: syngas, Topsoe, SynCOR, carbon capture, reactor, large plants, ammonia, methanol, reforming, oxygen, high temperature shift catalyst, MK-151 FENCE, safety, reliability, syngas production

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A new flowsheet for methanol production

Summary

The DAVY™ advanced series loop (ASL) developed by Johnson Matthey is a new multi-reactor flowsheet for methanol. In this article, C Yiu of Johnson Matthey looks at how the DAVY ASL combines the advantages of both a high recycle ratio and low recycle ratio loop using existing reactor designs. The article also compares the expected performance against some well-known methanol flowsheets.

Abstract

An axial steam raising converter (ASRC) has high heat transfer area per unit volume of catalyst (100 m²/m³), so it can handle high reaction rates. Due to its catalyst-in-tube design with a restricted flow area, it has high pressure drop if the flow is high. The ASRC is suitable for low recycle ratio operation and high carbon oxide concentration. Keywords: methanol DAVY advanced series loop, ASL, multi-reactor, methanol flowsheet, high recycle ratio loop, low recycle ratio loop, reactor design, axial steam raising converter, radial steam raising converter

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Gas market liberalisation

Summary

The continuing liberalisation of global gas markets, now spreading into Eastern Europe, Mexico, Japan and even the Middle East continues to affect feedstock prices and plant siting decisions for nitrogen and syngas producers.

Abstract

The global market for natural gas is continuing to change, with progressive liberalisation of production and supply, third party access to pipeline networks, the development of gas trading and pricing hubs, and more transparent, market-based pricing. While gas market liberalisation began more than two decades in the 1990s in the UK and United States, and has taken a long time to reach its current stage, the pace of developments has begun to pick up in the last few years, and even previously highly regulated gas markets are now starting to see considerable loosening. Keywords: EGYPT, JAPAN, MALAYSIA, CHINA, MEXICO, RUSSIA, EUROPE, OIL, LNG, PRICE, PRICES, COMPETITION, CONTRACT, SUBSIDY, SUBSIDIES

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Ukraine looks towards coal gasification

Summary

Eugene Gerden reports on Ukraine's plans to reduce its dependence on Russian natural gas through the use of syngas derived from coal gasification.

Abstract

The government of Ukraine is planning to significantly increase domestic syngas production in a move to reduce dependence on Russian natural gas and to strengthen national energy security, according to recent statements by the president and his government. Keywords: UCG, SHELL, LURGI, SIEMENS, GASIFIER, GASIFY, GASIFIED

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