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Publication > Issue > Articles

Africa's new fertilizer plants

Summary

Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the few regions in the world with large, untapped and disconnected or so-called 'stranded' natural gas – historically the rationale for much merchant nitrogen and methanol project development. But can it overcome lack of infrastructure and funding issues?

Abstract

New gas discoveries around Africa led to a rash of new export-oriented nitrogen project proposals a few years ago. However, while there have been some new project completions in Nigeria, elsewhere progress has been much more patchy and difficult. Keywords: LNG, gas, Nigeria, Gambia, Mozambique, Dangote, Indorama, Eleme, Ghana, Zambia, Sasol, Gabon, Tanzania, Brass, Notore, Cameroon.

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The outlook for urea

Summary

China has dominated the urea market for two decades: first as the largest importer to feed rapidly growing domestic demand; then, following huge over-building of capacity, as its largest exporter and price setter; and now, as the country seeks to crack down on environmental issues, by removing large sections of production from the market.

Abstract

Urea continues to be the most popular and widely traded of all nitrogen fertilizers, seeing a steady rise in its use, especially in Asia. Because of its high nitrogen content (46%), it is seen as one of the most cost-efficient ways of delivering nitrogen to soils. Keywords: Iran, India, China, gas, coal, LNG, investment, capacity, Africa, Russia, trade, import, export, sanctions.

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Plant Manager+ Problem No.49: Reverse rotation of CO2 compressor

Summary

The CO2 compressor of the urea plant is an expensive piece of critical rotating equipment installed without any spare position. Its reliability is therefore of prime importance. Sometimes reverse rotation occurs which can damage the internals of the compressor. What are the causes and what are the remedies to avoid reverse rotation of the CO2 compressor? There is a lot of misunderstanding around this subject. Here we share the experiences of various end users.

Abstract

Bhawna Dangi of NFL Vijaipur in India starts the round table discussion: What harm can reverse rotation of the CO2 compressor do and how can it be prevented? Keywords: CO2 compressor, rotating equipment, centrifugal compressor, valve, non return valve, reverse rotation, bearing damage, trip logic, urea plant, overspeed, kickback, depressurisation, vent, tripping, vibration, seals

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Clariant building on innovation and partnerships

Summary

In May, 2018 Nitrogen+Syngas was invited to meet with Stefan Heuser, Senior Vice President & General Manager, Catalysts and Marvin Estenfelder, Head of R&D at Clariant's Business Unit Catalysts to learn more about Clariant Catalysts' latest developments, global strategy and ambitions to become a China Insider.

Abstract

Clariant Catalyst is an independent catalyst manufacturer with a broad portfolio and technology partnerships with multiple leading technology providers. Clariant Catalysts’ strategy for growth focuses on the following main principles: Keywords: Clariant, catalyst, China, EnviCat, NOx, SCR, MegaMax, liquid organic hydrogen carrier, LOHC, Hydrogenious Technologies, NOx reduction, hydrogen storage, renewable energy

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Sustainable ammonia for food and power

Summary

Technologies for small ammonia plants are becoming increasingly important as ammonia production is moving toward more sustainable and renewable feedstocks. As the availability of these feedstocks cannot match that of fossil fuels, small and distributed plants are required, as well as dedicated technical solutions to match new and unconventional needs.

Abstract

Climate change and pollution are the undesirable consequences of a growing world population, increasing wealth and the desire for protein. They are also the cause of diseases, loss of arable land and extreme weather events – also caused by the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Keywords: small scale ammonia, renewable feedstocks, carbon dioxide, CO2, green energy, CO2 emissions, ammonia, energy carrier, energy storage, wind, solar, energy storage, water electrolysis, green ammonia, ammonia synthesis, alkaline water electrolysis, AWE, power, NFUEL, ISPT, Japan, low carbon society, power to ammonia, CO2-free hydrogen, hydrogen, ruthenium catalyst, Ru, rare earth oxide, REO, Casale, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, tkIS, Proton Ventures, JGC, Topsoe

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Modular ammonia plants for the US mid-continent

Summary

Carrie Lalou of Linde Engineering North America discusses the unique market conditions and challenges faced by fertilizer producers in the US mid-continent agricultural belt which can be addressed by using modular small-scale ammonia production plants for the scaling down of local ammonia production and distribution.

Abstract

The past three decades have seen a boom, a bust, and a refresh of the ammonia (NH3) market in the United States. The trend analysis for this can be almost directly correlated to the price of domestic natural gas (NG). As depicted in the graph in Fig. 1, the downward trend from the late 1990s through 2009 can be attributed to the growing uncertainty in natural gas supply, and the price spikes are due to natural and economic disasters during that decade. Keywords: Linde, ammonia, modular, small scale ammonia, US, ammonia production, Linde Ammonia Concept, LAC, Henry Hub, US Geological Survey, USGS, low cost natural gas, Hydro-Chem, HYDROPRIME, transportation

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Making the most of plant data

Summary

New IT technologies now allow the transfer of large amounts of data via the internet which opens up new opportunities for industrial plants, such as remote plant monitoring, remote plant operation and the utilisation of real-time plant data.

Abstract

Industry 4.0, the fourth major industrial revolution since the first industrial revolution of the 18th century has begun. This revolution has seen the introduction of a wide range of technologies, including internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) and cloud computing. Business operations are being transformed, including supply chains and the management of human resources. Keywords: big data, plant data, IT, internet, remote plant monitoring, real time plant data, ammonia plant, ammonia, DCS, internet of things, IoT, cloud computing, industry 4.0, digital services, plant reliability, KBR, advanced analytics, machine learning, urea plants, modelling, data analytics, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, tkIS, simulation, digital solutions, digital twin, TOYO, DX-PLANT, Predix, Casale, remote engineering services, plant monitoring, model predictive control, Johnson Matthey, JM, remote monitoring, optimisation, performance monitoring, digital data transfer, data flow analysis, online solutions, Topsoe, TrueTemp, Topsoe Furnace Manager, Saipem, XSIGHT, digitalisation

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