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Publication > Issue > Articles

China's sulphur import consortium

Summary

One of the most significant developments in the sulphur market in the past year has been the formation of the TGO import consortium in China. We look at the players involved and the implications for Chinese sulphur imports.

Abstract

China is the world’s largest importer of elemental sulphur. In 2017 the country imported 11.2 million tonnes of sulphur to feed its phosphate and other industries, representing just over one third of all traded sulphur. This level of imports – about 55-60% of demand – has been relatively constant over the past few years, although it has declined slightly due to a rise in domestic sulphur production from sour gas processing. Consumption goes mainly to feed increased phosphate fertilizer production as well as industrial uses, and as Figure 1 shows, has been rising slightly over the past few years. Keywords: Molten, liquid, UAE, Abu Dhabi, Kailin, Yuntianhua, Wengfu, sour gas, phosphate, DAP, port, import, imports

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Changing vehicle fuel standards

Summary

Sulphur content of vehicle fuels remains the main driver of refinery desulphurisation capacity, and standards continue to tighten all around the world.

Abstract

Global regulations on sulphur in fuel continue to tighten as a result of health concerns about sulphur dioxide and its link to respiratory illness, especially in urban areas in developing and industrialising countries. Air pollution is now reckoned to be the 4th highest ranking risk for premature death globally and has been described by the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) as the world’s largest environmental health risk, responsible for 3.7 million premature deaths per year. Diesel exhaust is a significant contributor to this risk; Keywords: Diesel, gasoline, carbon, Africa, IMO, SO2, sulphur dioxide, refinery, refineries, car, exhaust

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IPCO: a new name but a familiar partner

Summary

IPCO is a new name in industrial process solutions but a business partner with whom many in the sulphur industry will already be familiar.

Abstract

Previously operating as Sandvik Process Systems, best known for its Rotoform granulation process, IPCO is now an independent company within the Swedish Wallenberg group with 600 employees, more than 35 sales and service offices and annual sales in excess of e200 million. In joining the Wallenberg group, IPCO has gained the stability of being part of a business with approximately 600,000 employees and more than e140 billion in total annual sales of holdings. Keywords: IPCO, Sandvik Process Systems, Rotoform granulation, Rotoform, sulphur solidification, Dangote Lekki Refinery, sulphur handling, pastillation, sulphur pastilles, ProCool

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Steam systems in sulphuric acid plants

Summary

The 21st annual sulphuric acid workshop, held by the Florida Section of the AIChE Clearwater Convention 2018 focused this year on various aspects of engineering, specification, fabrication, operation and maintenance of heat recovery steam systems utilised in the sulphuric acid plant.

Abstract

For more than 40 years now, industry engineers have gathered at Florida’s idyllic Clearwater Beach for the AIChE’s two-day annual convention on sulphuric acid and phosphate fertilizer technology. The convention, which is always run on a Friday and Saturday, is renowned for its relaxed atmosphere and ability to combine business with friendship, food and family. Keywords: Clearwater, sulphuric acid workshop, sulphuric acid, steam system, heat recovery, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, boiler, HAZOP, quality control, inspection, test plan, non-destructive examination, NDE, fabrication, deaerator, monitoring, ASME Boiler Code, steam, condensate

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Optimised sulphur recovery with minimal investment

Summary

Due to ever increasing mandates to lower SO2 emissions and reducing operating margins, refiners and gas plant operators are always looking for ways to lower the operating cost of their tail gas treatment units. New processes, catalysts and solvents have been developed to meet these objectives. In this article we report on Shell's SCOT ULTRA process, Dow's UCARSOL™ TGT series of solvents and Keyon's S-Plus technology.

Abstract

Refiners and gas plant operators are under pressure to meet increasingly stringent global SO2 emission regulations varying from 50 to 150 mg/Nm3 SO2. Considerable investment in capital and operating expenditure may be required to implement the technology required to meet these standards, so choosing the right line-up is essential for minimising the impact on the bottom line of the facility. Keywords: Claus tail gas treating, TGT, tail gas treater, Claus, SCOT, SCOT ULTRA, UCARSOL TGT, S-Plus, JEFFTREAT ULTRA, sulphur recovery, SO2 emissions, solvent, catalyst, C-834 catalyst, water gas shift, COS hydrolysis, amine, MDEA, DIPA, fuel gas, thermal oxidiser, deep H2S removal, CNOOC, refinery, China, DSR process, Shell Global Solutions, Keyon Process, Dow

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New approaches to acid plant design

Summary

New commercially proven concepts for the production of sulphuric acid are available for new and existing plants. Next generation sulphuric acid technology from Chemetics and MECS are discussed.

Abstract

The sulphuric acid process has undergone little change in the last 40 years after the introduction of the double contact process. The standard sulphuric acid plant still mixes process gas containing SO2 with air to create a gas with an SO2 content in the range of 6-13 vol-% and an O2 to SO2 ratio above 1.0. The gas mixture then flows through a series of catalyst beds to oxidise the SO2 to SO3. Keywords: sulphuric acid, Chemetics, CORE process, CORE reactor, add-on process, copper smelter, MECS, MAX3, SolvR, SO2 scrubbing, ClausMaster, steam injection, SteaMax, HRS

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