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Plant Manager+ Problem No. 50: Low vacuum pressure in the second-stage evaporator

Summary

Most urea plants operate a two-stage evaporator section. Both stages operate under vacuum pressure conditions and both pressures and temperatures are critical to achieve the right urea product quality. It is not always easy to determine the exact cause of non-optimum values for certain process parameters like, for example, low vacuum pressure in the second-stage evaporator. Many factors can influence this vacuum pressure as discussed below.

Abstract

Mohit Bayer of CFCL Kota in India starts the discussion: In our plant we are experiencing a problem with the vacuum pressure in the final concentrator which is very low (it is now 105 mm Hg, whereas before it was 60 mm Hg). We have done all types of flushing. Keywords: evaporator, vacuum pressure, urea plant, final concentrator, valves, flushing, ejector, vacuum system, polymer

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Inert catalyst support and hold-down media

Summary

Materials science continues to develop and choosing the correct media for syngas applications can create significant value for a customer. The latest market leading developments in catalyst support and hold-down media provide innovative solutions to improve the performance, reliability and availability of syngas plants.

Abstract

The predominant trend over the past decades has been a significant increase in the capacity of syngas units in order to maximise economy of scale. As process designs evolve, the operating parameters around autothermal reformers and oxygen-blown secondary reformers have increased in severity. Keywords: catalyst support, hold down media, syngas, materials, alumina balls, ceramic balls, secondary reformer, autothermal reformer, ATR, shift reactor, pressure drop, target tiles, alumina lumps, support media, alumina silicate, purification, catalyst bed, Christy Catalytics, PROX-SVERS, CATA-COGS, Saint-Gobain NorPro, Denstone, Johnson Matthey, STREAMLINE, zirconia tiles, PURASPEC, Topsoe, HTZR

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Technology integration adding value

Summary

Driven by economic cycles, market developments, increasing investment cost and more stringent environmental requirements, ammonia, urea and methanol producers are looking for integrated solutions to provide reliable, cost effective and sustainable production technologies for their products.

Abstract

Despite urea price fluctuations, market demand for this highly-efficient nitrogen fertilizer remains positive. In recent years there has also been a growing demand for urea-based products, such as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), AdBlue etc. so, it is not surprising that many mainstream manufacturers of nitrogen fertilizers consider further expansion of their urea production as a priority. The starting point for expansion typically starts with the scale up of the ammonia production, as ammonia is a critical raw material for all nitrogen fertilizers. Keywords: process integration, ammonia, urea, melamine, methanol, urea, UAN, diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, AdBlue, formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde concentrate, UFC, ammonium sulphate, Davy, methylamines, Stamicarbon, NIIK, URECON 2006, Johnson Matthey, FORMOX, Eurotecnica, Euromel, Saipem, Casale, carbon dioxide recovery, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, GasConTec, AdWinCombined, ammonia-methanol coproduction

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Can India develop a methanol economy?

Summary

India is currently engaged in a major policy discussion on greater use of alternative fuels, hoping to emulate the success of China and Brazil in substituting oil imports with domestically produced alternative fuels. Can coal-based methanol be a success there?

Abstract

In Brazil, ethanol derived from sugar cane represents 18% of all transport fuel consumed in the country every year, on an energy equivalent basis. In China, methanol, mainly derived from coal feedstocks, has grown to just over 10% of the gasoline pool, in spite of strong opposition from the major state oil producers Sinopec and PetroChina. Keywords: DME, dimethyl, ether, power, car, vehicle, coal, rail, railway, railroad, gasify, gasification

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Market for industrial grade AN

Summary

Industrial grade ammonium nitrate (IGAN) is the key component of industrial explosives around the world. As such it forms a distinct market segment of the AN industry separate from fertilizer uses, and occupies roughly 22% of all AN demand.

Abstract

Industrial grade ammonium nitrate (IGAN), also known as low density ammonium nitrate (LDAN), technical ammonium nitrate (TAN) or explosive grade ammonium nitrate (EGAN), as distinct from fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (FGAN) is a component of most of the world’s widely used commercial explosives. About 98% of low density AN goes towards explosives production, and although there are a wide variety of commercial explosives of varying compositions in use around the world, ammonium nitrate is a key component of most of these. Keywords: Explosive, IGAN, EGAN, FGAN, TAN, LDAN, ANFO, mining, emulsion, copper, iron, Australia

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