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Publication > Issue > Articles

Sandvik speeds throughput

Summary

Sandvik Process Systems has developed a version of its Rotoform pastillating equipment with twice the through­put of its predecessors. Sulphur saw the machine go through its paces at a contract forming operation in Sicily.

Abstract

In the 1950s separating sulphur from crude oil and its refined products was not a priority for the Italian government. But generating new employment and post-war reconstruction in the Mezzogiorno, Italy’s less afluent southern region, certainly was a priority, hence the legislature’s decision to fund a fledgling refining and petrochemicals industry, principally on the island of Sicily.

The strategic choice of Sicily was in part based on the relatively short export route it offered between Middle Eastern oilfields and European consumers. It is a plan supported by history because south-east Sicily today accomodates one of Europe’s major refining hubs. A 15-kilometre ribbon of oil processing and ethylene cracking sits along the coast between the area’s commercial centre, Catania, and the antique bayside development of Syracusa, with its substantial remains of a Greek city state.

Nor, historically, was a regular supply of sulphur much of a problem from this island of volcanoes. Into the 20th century production from Sicily’s native sulphur mines was a major local industry, supporting exports of brimstone throughout Europe and across the Atlantic.

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Predicting SCOT catalyst activity

Summary

A new reactor model that relates traditional catalyst activity assessment to SCOT reactor performance has been developed by Shell Global Solutions. The new predictive tool enables better planning of SCOT turn­arounds, thus avoiding unnecessary catalyst replacement and reducing the risk and costs of unplanned outages for unscheduled catalyst change-out. Fred Stone, Michael Huffmaster and Steve Massie discuss the new methodology and report on Shell's Puget Sound Refinery, which served as the test case for model development.

Abstract

Environmental performance of Shell Oil Company’s Puget Sound Refinery (PSR) is critical in the environmentally sensitive, northwest US area of Puget Sound. Maximum allowed sulphur emission is 250 ppm SO2 in incinerator stacks, on a dry, oxygen free basis, with incineration at 1200 ºF (649 °C). Rolling hourly averages and 12-hour averages cannot exceed the sulphur limit. Violations require formally notifying the State of Washington. These criteria are fairly typical for US refineries; however, their enforcement in the Northwest is more stringent than in most parts of the country.

The Shell Claus Off-Gas Treatment (SCOT) process is used extensively to clean up Claus sulphur recovery plant off-gas streams to meet environmental requirements. The Claus process achieves 94 to 97% sulphur recovery. SCOT improves overall sulphur recovery, is the most widely selected tail gas clean-up process, and is the industry standard when tail gas recoveries of 99% to 99.95% are required. Today more than 190 SCOT units are licensed to operate throughout the world, with upstream Claus unit sulphur capacities ranging from 3 to over 2400 long tons per day.

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Towers and converters: technology review

Summary

Sulphur magazine provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies available for acid towers and converters, with contributions from leading companies in the field. Technologies covered include mist elimators, acid distributors, tower shells, packing, packing support and converter internals.

Abstract

The topics discussed include technologies from the following companies:

  • Acid Piping Technology, Inc.
  • Aker Kvaerner Chemetics
  • Begg Cousland
  • CECO Filters
  • Canal Engineers
  • Edmeston
  • Koch Knight LLC
  • Koch-Otto York
  • MECS Inc.
  • Rauschert Verfahrenstechnik
  • Noram Engineers and Constructors

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PAL processing comes of age

Summary

Direct support from the big names in metals and mining is pushing pressure acid leach technology forward as the preferred route to meeting demand for nickel.

Abstract

During the summer months two of the largest projects to be announced so far aiming to process nickel oxide ore by pressure acid leach techniques have emerged from their potential to become full-blown projects destined for production. The common factor in the progress of each of the projects is the commitment to their future of leading companies from the metals and mining industry.

With other big names lining up for membership of acid leach-based nickel production, there is all the potential for a significant market in the making for sulphur.

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Easy handling of molten sulphur

Summary

Bob Borges of Lewis Pumps offers a few general guidelines for easy, trouble-free pumping of molten sulphur. Temperature control is paramount. Pump selection based on sulphur quality, mechanical design and materials of construction are also important considerations.

Abstract

The vast majority of molten sulphur today comes from the oil and gas industry as a byproduct of handling sour feed stocks. This sulphur is very pure, typically containing less than 0.1% ash and trace amounts of hydrogen sulphide.

Sulphur is shipped as a liquid or a solid. Sulphur that is handled in its liquid form is typically referred to as “clean” sulphur. Solid sulphur, regardless of its form, is normally classified as “dirty” sulphur due to impurities picked up during shipping and handling.

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Meeting in Moscow

Summary

The Sulphur conference makes its debut in the capital city of one of the leading producers of sulphur. Venue is the Radisson SAS Slavyanskaya Hotel from 23-26 October.

Abstract

The Sulphur conference series does make the effort to get to the leading regions of supply and demand, so ­perhaps it’s about time it landed in Russia, the world’s biggest country and among its biggest producers and exporters of sulphur. Through its processing subsidiaries Astra­khangazprom (AGP) and Orenburg­gaz­prom, Russia’s mighty gas company, Gaz­prom, ­dominates internal supply and export of sulphur in the federation. A joint presentation between AGP and Canadian forming equipment producer Enersul during the opening morning of Sulphur 2005 will discuss the gas processor’s emphasis on premium product as an increasingly important factor in international sales, and how it has gone about ­increasing production of higher-value material.

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ASRL Review

Summary

R & D programmes at ASRL -- Peter D. Clark, Technical Manager at ASRL, describes aspects of the research programme in progress at the world's leading centre for studies of sulphur science and technology

Abstract

ASRL was formed in 1964 to assist the sour ­natural gas industry then developing in western Canada. That industry has grown into a vital part of North American energy supply, powering important sectors of both the Canadian and US economies. Indeed, Alberta can lay claim to being a key driver of the world’s seventh largest economy, California. ASRL has grown with the natural gas ­industry and serves member companies not only in Canada and in the US, but several companies based in Europe, and Saudi Aramco in the Middle East (see the list of members on the final page of ASRL Review).

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