BC Insight - Nitrogen+Syngas, Sulphur, Fertilizer International
Login
BCInsight Ltd
China Works
Black Prince Road
London, SE1 7SJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7793 2567
Fax: +44 (0)20 7793 2577

Publication > Issue > Articles

Carbon beds in amine systems

Summary

Carbon beds are an integral part of most amine-based gas treating units. In some cases, the carbon bed is on the rich amine stream, although it is often on the lean stream. In most cases, there is a small slip stream 5-25% (of the main flow) that contacts the carbon. The ostensible reason to use a carbon bed is for hydrocarbon removal. M. Thundyil and D. Seeger of Transcend Solutions LLC analyse the utility of carbon beds in removing hydrocarbons in the context of a typical amine treating process and the typical contaminants that exist in the process. Other technologies that can be applied to leverage the efficacy of carbon bed treatment of amine streams are also evaluated.

Abstract

Gas streams containing acid gases (H2S, CO2) are often treated with aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as monoethanol amine (MEA), diethanol amine (DEA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), diisopropanol amine (DIPA), amino-ethoxy-ethanol (diglycolamine, DGA) etc. The alkanol amine absorbs the acid gases in the absorber. The “rich” amine is then sent to the stripper column, where the acid gases are released under heat and reduced pressure. The resulting “lean” amine is returned to the top of the absorber column for acid-gas absorption. A simplified schematic of the amine treating system is provided in Fig. 1. Keywords: carbon bed, amine treating, amine, carbon adsorption, best practices, liquid-liquid separation, emulsified hydrocarbons, aerosol gas separation, Transcend Solutions

Add to basket


Copper smelter provides district heating in Hamburg

Summary

Copper plays a central role in today's transition to a low-carbon economy and Aurubis, the world's leading provider of non-ferrous metals, has been at the forefront of implementing low-carbon energy solutions. With operational safety paramount and several conditions needed to coincide, shifting operating conditions to allow energy recovery from the sulphuric acid plant of a copper smelter for public district heating is no trivial task. H. Hintze of Aurubis AG and T. Weber of Smart SCOPE GmbH describe this brownfield project from its conception to its realisation.

Abstract

The correlation between the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature change is widely recognised around the world – as the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased, the global average temperature has generally increased too (see Fig. 1). Keywords: low carbon energy, copper smelter, sulphuric acid plant, district heating, Hafencity East, Hamburg, intermediate absorption tower, energy recovery, Aurubis, SmartSCOPE

Add to basket


Co-production of liquid SO2 and sulphuric acid

Summary

M. Verri and A. Baldelli of Desmet Ballestra S.p.A. describe design options for the co-production of liquid sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid from elemental sulphur for the non-ferrous mining industry. Two industrial size integrated plants producing liquid sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid are described. The first has been in operation since 2012 and the second is in the initial stages of erection.

Abstract

The production of liquid sulphur dioxide from elemental sulphur, by cryogenic condensation from a gaseous stream, can be easily integrated or combined with a sulphuric acid production plant. A portion of the SO2-bearing gas, which is fed to the first stage of the ­SO2‑SO3 catalytic converter can be diverted to a unit dedicated to the condensation of the SO2 at low temperature (Fig. 1.) Keywords: liquid sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, coproduction, cryogenic unit, SO2 vapour-liquid equilibrium, integrated plant, Desmet Ballestra

Add to basket


Operation and performance of the Euroclaus® process

Summary

The Euroclaus® process is a well proven modification of the Superclaus® process to achieve higher sulphur recovery efficiencies. B. Walton and G. Molenaar of Sulphur Experts Inc., O. Garcia of Parkland Refining BC Ltd, A. van Warners and T. Roelofs of Jacobs Nederland B.V. provide a comprehensive overview of the Euroclaus® basics including process layout, catalyst chemistry, actual installations and performance capabilities. In addition, based on 15+ years of Euroclaus® performance testing, gathered plant data from the test work is presented and Euroclaus® performance reviewed. Various case studies are examined and discussed including the Euroclaus® installation at the Parkland Burnaby Refinery.

Abstract

In the world of sulphur recovery, the Jacobs’ Superclaus® process has proven to be a leading technology and continues to be widely applied in the industry to significantly reduce SO2 emissions beyond that achievable with only conventional Claus technology. Since the commissioning of the first Superclaus® process in 1988, this technology has succeeded in meeting the needs of refiners and gas plant operators delivering high efficiency and operability at a reasonable add-on cost. Keywords: Euroclaus, sulphur recovery, Superclaus, catalyst, test data, performance, sulphur recovery efficiency, COS, hydrogenation, troubleshooting, Sulphur Experts, Jacobs Nederland, Parkland Burnaby Refinery

Add to basket


India's sulphur balance

Summary

India continues to see demand increase for sulphur from increased phosphoric acid production and use, which will not be offset in the short term by additional sulphur production from new refining projects.

Abstract

India is the world’s fastest growing major economy, with GDP rising at 6.6% in 2017 and 7.2% in 2018-19. While China’s growth figures have been similar, the latter is on a declining trend as its economy and population matures, but while India’s population growth is falling, it is still forecast to reach 1.5 billion people by 2030 and 1.7 billion by 2050. This continues to require more food and is leading to more vehicle use, which are driving greater sulphur production from refineries on the one hand, and greater sulphur/sulphuric acid consumption for the phosphate industry on the other. Keywords: REFINERY, REFINING, DAP, ACID, TUTICORIN, VEDANTA, STERLITE, SMELTER, SMELTING, MARKET

Add to basket


Copper market to boost acid production

Summary

Following a period of overcapacity, the copper market has moved back into deficit, and increased demand and production is likely to generate additional volumes of sulphuric acid.

Abstract

After the phosphate fertilizer industry, the copper industry is one of the largest determinants of sulphuric acid production and consumption. Production of acid from the sulphur dioxide off-gases generated by smelting of copper sulphide ores is the most important source of acid apart from sulphur burning plants, while consumption of acid for the leaching of copper oxide ores is also a major factor for sulphuric acid demand, representing about 8% of acid demand overall. Keywords: COCHILCO, CHILE, CHINA, SMELTER, SMELTING, MINE, MINING, METALLURGICAL, INDIA, CODELCO, ELECTRIC

Add to basket