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Publication > Issue > Articles

Nitrogen in Russia and CIS

Summary

Cheap, stranded natural gas and favourable exchange rates have combined with increasing domestic demand to produce a boom for nitrogen production in Russia and parts of Central Asia.

Abstract

Russia and Central Asia continue to be one of the bright spots in the nitrogen industry for new construction, representing the largest tonnage of new capacity likely to come on-stream over the next few years outside of India. Several factors have combined to bring this about, including abundant natural gas, risin domestic demand for fertilizer, and favourable exchange rates. Keywords: RUSSIA, KAZAKHSTAN, UZBEKISTAN, AZERBAIJAN, TURKMENISTAN, EUROCHEM, ACRON, ROUBLE, GAZPROM, AGRICULTURE

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Natural gas: prices and policy,

Summary

A look at the prospects for the market for natural gas, still the most widely used feedstock for syngas production and a key determinant of profitability.

Abstract

Outside of China, where coal and coke remain the mainstays, the predominance of natural gas as a feedstock for syngas-based industries continues. This is primarily due to its relatively low cost and ease of handling – gas-based plants do not require expensive feedstock treatment and gasification front-ends, and hence require less capital investment, and gas has generally been a relatively abundant and fairly cheap source of energy. However, the worldwide marketplace for gas continues to evolve, with the spread of LNG use beginning to tie together a truly global gas market, while in places such as North America and Europe the spread of hub-based pricing has started to erode the market’s previous reliance on oil-indexed pricing. Keywords: LNG, QATAR, US, UNITED STATES, USA, SHALE, UNCONVENTIONAL, COALBED, MMBTU, PIPELINE

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Nitrogen+Syngas 2019 Conference Preview

Summary

CRU's Nitrogen+Syngas Conference and Exhibition returns to Berlin this year and will be held at the Estrel Berlin, Germany, 4-7 March 2019.

Abstract

The four-day agenda incorporates practical workshops, industry insights from CRU's nitrogen analysts and other industry experts, and a comprehensive dual-streamed agenda featuring over 45 technical papers focused on the latest technology, process and equipment innovations and operational best practice. The conference runs alongside an exhibition of world-class process, materials, equipment and technology solution providers. Opportunities for networking is scheduled throughout the agenda. Keywords: conference preview, CRU Nitrogen + Syngas Conference, exhibition, agenda, Berlin, workshops, technical programme

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Reducing ammonia plant emissions

Summary

With global concerns over air quality and its impact on the environment, ammonia plant emissions are subject to tightening environmental standards. Several different strategies are available to reduce ammonia plant emissions. In this article we discuss environmental compliance strategies for new and existing ammonia plants around the world.

Abstract

During recent years, restrictions in the formation of ozone (O3) in the troposphere (i.e. near ground) by air pollutants have gained significance in the desire to reduce smog. The presence of precursors such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sunlight enhances the formation of ozone; the main emission sources of ozone precursors being traffic and industry. Keywords: ammonia plant, air quality, environment, environmental compliance, ozone, NOx, VOC, regulations, BAT, primary reformer, SCR, SNCR, low NOx burners, fuel bound nitrogen, thermal NOx, DNX, SiNOx, shift catalyst, methanol emissions, CO2 emissions, renewable sources, electric power, electrolysis of water, Johnson Matthey, Umicore, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, KBR, Casale

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Better nitric acid plant start-ups

Summary

While the problem of visible NOx emissions has been solved for almost all nitric plants in steady state, normal operation, the situation for the majority of plants when they are starting up is very different. thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, Hindustan Platinum and Espindesa focus on what can be done to achieve better colourless start-ups.

Abstract

It is the bane of the nitric acid producer that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is not a colourless gas. In the past a nitric acid plant in operation could easily be identified by the reddish-brown plume of tail gas emerging from its stack with its burden of NOx (NO and NO2). Technological improvements and increasingly stringent legislation driven by concerns about the adverse effects of NOx on human health and the environment have ensured a steady reduction in NOx emissions over the years. Keywords: nitric acid, emissions, NOx, nitrogen dioxide, start-up, absorption tower, tail gas, NOx abatement, EnviNOx, catalyst, platinum loss, grain boundary, rhodium enrichment, rhodium oxide, thermal etching, preheating, ignition, chilled water, enclosed NOx, dual pressure plant, mono pressure plant, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, Hindustan Platinum, Espindesa

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NAMAX: optimised turbomachinery for greater efficiency

Summary

MAN Energy Solutions has introduced a new, comprehensively optimised, turbomachinery concept named NAMAX that provides a new level of flexibility and efficiency for nitric acid production. Dr Stefan Ubben discusses the benefits of this technological leap which provides significant improvements to fertilizer production.

Abstract

In today’s fertilizer industry, production processes have been well balanced over the years in terms of efficiency, reliability and output. With substantial power consumption, it is above all the efficiency of such processes and machinery trains that is an economic requirement of producers. Significant improvements have become quite rare here. As with all well-established technology, the maximum efficiency of associated production processes has been achieved in most cases. Keywords: nitric acid, turbomachinery, NAMAX, MAN Energy Solutions, compressor train, train configuration, modular, commissioning, footprint

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Meeting stricter N2O limits

Summary

Abstract

Nitric acid is an important chemical feedstock. It is used primarily in fertilizer and nylon production, the photographic industry, precious metal separation and explosives manufacture. About seven kilograms of nitrous oxide (N2O) are generated as a by-product per tonne of nitric acid produced. Keywords: nitric acid, emissions control, EnviCat N2O, EnviCat N2O-S, nitrous oxide, N2O, zeolite catalyst, Clariant

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Plant Manager+ Problem No. 52: High nickel content in high pressure urea synthesis

Summary

The detection of active corrosion in a urea plant is difficult. Local corrosion can hardly be detected unless leak detection systems or conductivity measurements in steam/condensate systems are used. Overall corrosion however can be detected in the warehouse by checking for discoloration (reddish colour) of the product or via analyses of the urea final product.

Abstract

Krzysztof Czachór from Grupa Azoty Zakłady Chemiczne Police in Poland starts the round table discussion: I would like to ask what the standard nickel content measured in the high pressure (HP) urea synthesis section is? Keywords: nickel, corrosion, high pressure urea synthesis, Stamicarbon CO2 stripping plant, HP scrubber, HP carbamate pump

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