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The Gulf's growing sulphur surplus

Summary

The Arabian Gulf continues to be the fastest growing area for new sulphur supply. While large sour gas projects, some of them delayed from earlier years, continue to be the major source of new sulphur, large new refining projects in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia will also contribute to the growing surplus.

Abstract

Over the next five years, annual global sulphur production is forecast to increase by about 9 million tonnes to reach about 73 million t/a in 2023, and it now looks as though up to two thirds of this supply growth will come from the Middle East. Monetisation of the region’s abundant hydrocarbon supplies, via sour gas processing to provide sales gas for rapidly growing, energy-­hungry cities and a continuing move downstream from oil production and export to refined product production are driving this increase. Keywords: ABU DHABI, UAE, IRAN, BAHRAIN, SAUDI ARABIA, KUWAIT, QATAR, PHOSPHATE, SOUR GAS, ADNOC

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Sulphur as a fertilizer

Summary

The importance of sulphur in plant nutrition is becoming increasingly recognised. While many traditional sulphate-based fertilizers are still the major source of plant nutrient sulphur, a wide variety of new sulphur enhanced fertilizers are now available to help correct growing sulphur soil deficiencies.

Abstract

Sulphur’s important role in crop nutrition is not a new story. However, it is one that was largely obscured by other factors until the later years of the 20th century. At that time, developments in improving air quality and greater availability of new types of fertilizer conspired to reduce the amount of sulphur that was being deposited in the soil. As a result, the need to supplement ‘naturally’ occurring sulphur is becoming a progressively more urgent one worldwide. Keywords: POLYHALITE, PHOSPHATE, AMMONIUM SULPHATE, MOP, SOP, CONTROLLED RELEASE, ENHANCED, ENRICHED, SSP, UREA

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Sulphur dust suppression in extremely cold temperatures

Summary

Dr Jeff Cooke, Director of Technology, and Tibor Horvath, Laboratory Manager for the IPAC Chemicals Division of DuBois Chemicals Canada discuss the use of dust suppressant chemicals on formed sulphur in freezing conditions when traditional water-based sprays are unusable.

Abstract

All over the world, countries are continuing to recognise the importance of monitoring and reducing the impact that industrial processes have on the natural surroundings, local populations, and the workers that the particular industries employ. Regulations are becoming increasingly more stringent, and public awareness is acute as news of spills, releases, fires or worker injuries can spread rapidly through email and social media, and provide a far greater impact than traditional reporting in news media. Keywords: PARTICLES, SUPPRESSANT, AGGLOMERATION, DUST, WETTING

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Sulphuric acid from non-condensable gases

Summary

New wet gas sulphuric acid technology to produce sulphuric acid from the incineration of pulp mill non-condensable gases has been operating continuously since 2017, reducing sulphurous emissions at the Äänekoski pulp mill in Finland. The internally produced sulphuric acid can replace purchased acid at several locations within the mill. Naveen Chenna of Valmet Technologies Inc. describes the new process and its advantages.

Abstract

Sulphur is an essential chemical element in kraft pulp mills and it actively participate in reactions with wood chips to produce pulp. Sulphur is present in black/white liquors and discharge waters and escapes the pulp mill processes as non-condensable gases (NCGs)1. Traditionally, NCGs are carefully collected and incinerated either in a recovery boiler/power boiler/lime kiln or separate NCG boiler. In many cases oxidised sulphur in flue gas is not recovered and thus it increases the emission levels of mill. Keywords: wet gas sulphuric acid, sulphuric acid, incineration, pulp mill, non-condensable gases, sulphur emissions, Äänekoski Bioproduct mill, Finland, Valmet Technologies, SO2 oxidation, wet gas condensation process, tail gas scrubber.

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TGTU re-start-up at Mellitah Complex

Summary

The Claus tail gas treatment unit (TGTU) at the Mellitah Oil & Gas BV complex was successfully re-commissioned in January, 2018. Ciro Di Carlo of Siirtec Nigi describes the sequence of operation successfully carried out under Siirtec Nigi guidance to bring the TGT unit on stream, on a continuous and stable basis, under uncommon circumstances.

Abstract

The Claus tail gas treatment unit (train 3), part of the acid gas treatment and sulphur recovery facilities installed at Mellitah complex, Libya, owned and operated by Mellitah Oil & Gas BV (MOG), was successfully re-commissioned and put on stream under Siirtec Nigi supervision in January, 2018. Keywords: Claus tail gas treatment unit, TGTU, Mellitah Oil & Gas, MOG, recommissioned, Siirtec Nigi, acid gas enrichment, AGE, amine regeneration unit, ARU, sulphur recovery, sulphur degassing, incineration, sour water stripper, SWS, spent catalyst, catalyst unloading, presulphiding, start-up, HCR process, High Claus Ratio, low temperature catalysts

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Integrated AGE and hydrocarbon removal in sour gas processing

Summary

A new sour gas treating scheme comprising H2S removal, separation of impurities such as hydrocarbons, BTEX and mercaptans, and an integrated acid gas enrichment system has been developed for sour gas field developments, refineries, associated gas, shale gas, syngas from power plants, natural gas processing applications, and early production facilities. M. Rameshni and S. Santo of Rameshni & Associates Technology & Engineering (RATE) describe this innovative scheme named Enrich-MAX.

Abstract

Increasing energy costs and the growing demand for natural gas have driven the development of sour gas fields around the world. About 40% of the world’s natural gas reserves are in the form of sour gas where H2S and CO2 compositions exceed 10 vol-% of the raw acid gas produced. Keywords: Sour gas treating, H2S removal, impurities, hydrocarbons, BTEX, mercaptans, integrated, acid gas enrichment, AGE, Rameshni & Associates Technology & Engineering, RATE, Enrich-MAX, reaction furnace, tail gas treating, amine solvents, selective solvents, SRU

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Sulphur plant upgrade for lean acid gas processing

Summary

WorleyParsons and Linde have carried out a prefeasibility study to determine the best option to improve operations of a Saudi Aramco sulphur plant processing a lean acid gas feed containing H2S and BTX contaminants. High level oxygen enrichment combined with acid gas enrichment unit (AGE) was found to be the most economic option. I. Alami and C. Chukwunyere of Saudi Aramco, Dr M. Guzmann of Linde Gas and S. Pollitt of WorleyParsons discuss the findings.

Abstract

Global annual elemental sulphur production is estimated at over 64 million tonnes with more than 95% deriving from oil and natural gas. The most challenging feedstock for the sulphur recovery plant derives from natural gas processing which typically contains lower concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and often contains benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) which must be removed or destroyed in the reaction furnace. Keywords: acid gas enrichment, AGE, oxygen enrichment, lean acid gas, WorleyParsons, Linde, Uthmaniya, Saudi Aramco, sulphur plant, BTX, carbon beds, 99.9+% sulphur recovery efficiency, capex, opex, tail gas treating unit TGTU, redundancy, sulphur emissions

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